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RenalWEB Home Page
Last Updated 03/22/20
   

Infection control is a responsibility of everyone involved with the dialysis treatment process. This resource page provides the latest information on infection control issues from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as the dialysis-specific scientific journals.

Chronic hemodialysis patients are at high risk for infection because the process of hemodialysis requires vascular access for prolonged periods. In an environment where multiple patients receive dialysis concurrently, repeated opportunities exist for person-to-person transmission of infectious agents, directly or indirectly via contaminated devices, equipment and supplies, environmental surfaces, or hands of personnel. Furthermore, hemodialysis patients are immunosuppressed, which increases their susceptibility to infection, and they require frequent hospitalizations and surgery, which increases their opportunities for exposure to nosocomial infections. Bacterial infections, especially those involving vascular access, are the most frequent infectious complication of hemodialysis and a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis patients.

Warning: Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  All patients have unique healthcare concerns and considerations and these must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.

  NEWS AND LATEST ARTICLES

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From Jack Ma and Alibaba Foundations: Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment - (68-page pdf) Document from the First Affiliated Hospital, Shejiang University School of Medicine: “Compiled According to Clinical Experience.” Alibaba Cloud page for Global MediXchange for Combating COVID-19. - March 2020

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Coronavirus and ACE2: What is the Evidence Regarding ACEis and ARBs? - Article from Kidney News Online. - March 2020

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American Society of Nephrology’s Response to COVID-19 - Listing from Kidney News Online. - March 2020

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News Summaries/Articles from Kaiser Health News - March 20, 2020

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FDA Walks Back Trump Claims on COVID-19 Drugs - Posting from the Roll Call blog. - March 20, 2020

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Facts versus Fiction – Breaking Down COVID-19 Myths - Press release from University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. - March 20, 2020

This Is What Coronavirus Looks Like in an Italian Hospital 1min46sec footage from vimeo.

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ERA-EDTA Council Creates Resource Page for Renal Aspects of COVID-19  - The webpage will be updated regularly by a dedicated editorial team of nephrologists and virologists. - March 19, 2020

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Articles from Kidney News Online - March 19, 2020

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Patient Risk for COVID-19 Uncertain in Some Specialties - (Registration required, but free.)  Article from MedPage Today. - March 19, 2020

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Press Releases from the National Kidney Foundation - March 19, 2020

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Free, Full-Text, New Online Articles from the Journal of the American Medical Association - March 19, 2020

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Dialysis Clinic’s Policy Requires Patients to Reuse Masks - Posting and over 150 replies from the Dialysis Discussion Uncensored Facebook page. - March 19, 2020

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American Association of Kidney Patients Coronavirus Survey - Notice from the Northwest Renal Network. - March 19, 2020

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Supporting You During the Coronavirus Pandemic - Posting by National Kidney Foundation CEO and kidney transplant recipient, Kevin Longino. - March 19, 2020

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Pet-Related Pasteurella multocida Induced Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis: a Case Report and Review of the Literatures - Free, Open Access article from  BMC Nephrology. - March 19, 2020

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Print Your Own Hands-Free Door Opener to Contain Spread of Coronavirus - Article from MedGadget. - March 19, 2020

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Articles from HealthDay - March 19, 2020

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Articles from The Hill - March 19, 2020

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Articles from STAT - March 19, 2020

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Articles/Video from CNN - March 19, 2020

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Recommendations for the Prevention, Mitigation and Containment of the Emerging SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Haemodialysis Centres - (11-page pdf) Document from the Eudial Working Group of ERA-EDTA COVID-19 resource page. - March 19, 2020

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Medical Conferences Didn’t Cancel, Exposing Doctors Who Treat High-Risk Patients to Coronavirus - Article from ProPublica. - March 18, 2020
“A kidney care company (DaVita) did not cancel its conference (March 5 and 6) even as the coronavirus spread. One attendee has been diagnosed, prompting fears that it will spread among doctors and patients. It’s one of several medical conferences that were not canceled.”

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CDC Suggests Nurses Use Bandanas, Scarves (as Last Resort) during Face Mask Shortage - Posting from the Roll Call blog. (See CDC document in next news grouping.)  - March 18, 2020

Also see:

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CMS Releases Recommendations on Adult Elective Surgeries, Non-Essential Medical, Surgical, and Dental Procedures During COVID-19 Response - CMS press release and guidance (2-page pdf).  See last item on guidance for transplant surgery information. - March 18, 2020

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Protocol for Nephrologists from COVID-19 Italy Experience - (15-page pdf) Document from the Brescia Renal Covid Task Force.  Related tweet from Maria Jose Soler. - March 18, 2020

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International Society of Nephrology Updates COVID-19 Section - Related tweet. - March 18, 2020

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Articles from STAT - March 18, 2020

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Articles from HealthDay - March 18, 2020

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Articles from The Hill - March 18, 2020

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News Summaries/Articles from Kaiser Health News - March 18, 2020

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COVID-19 Response News Alert: CMS Issues Frequently Asked Questions on Catastrophic Health Coverage and the Coronavirus - CMS press release. - March 18, 2020

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ERA-EDTA:  COVID-19 News and Information - European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association. - March 18, 2020

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Teleheath Waiver: Due to COVID-19, Medicare Opening Telehealth to Non-Public Facing Applications - Article from Kidney News Online. - March 2020

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COVID-19 Test Performed by Selected Country and Province - Graphic from tweet and article from The Globe and Mail (Toronto). - March 17, 2020

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How Long Does Coronavirus Survive in the Air and on Surfaces? - News brief from NEJM Journal Watch. Free, full-text, Letter to the Editor (March 17)  from the New England Journal of Medicine.  News release from the National Institutes of Health. - March 17, 2020

“SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), can remain viable in aerosols for hours and on surfaces for days, according to a correspondence in the New England Journal of Medicine.”

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Mild Cases May Be Driving Coronavirus Spread - Article from WebMD. - March 17, 2020

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President Trump Expands Telehealth Benefits for Medicare Beneficiaries During COVID-19 Outbreak - Press release,  fact sheet and frequently asked questions  (FAQs – 4-page pdf) from CMS.  Related article from STAT.  Summary from the Northwest Renal Network. - March 17, 2020

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Treating COVID-19 in Patients with Diabetes - Article from Internal Medicine News. - March 17, 2020

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Articles from The Hill - March 17, 2020

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Accepted Article Abstracts and Full-Text PDFs from American Journal of Transplantation - March 17, 2020

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COVID-19: (UK) Renal Association President’s Briefing - Letter by Dr. Graham Lipkin dated March 17.   - March 17, 2020
Excerpt:

“These are truly unbelievable times. There are 3 key areas where we are seeking system support to help renal units;

  • Rapid COVID 19 testing in dialysis patients (IP/OP) as a special case, separating suspected from infected
  • Cohorting separately of infected and suspected HD patients in dialysis areas/units (Regional collaboration and independent provider support)
  • Urgent transport solutions for infected and suspected dialysis patients.”
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Coronavirus: The Simple Infographic Guide To Protect You and Your Community - Posting from the KevinMD blog. - March 17, 2020

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Vascular Access and Risk of Bloodstream Infection Among Older Incident Hemodialysis Patients - Free, Full-Text, Articles in Press from Kidney Medicine. - March 17, 2020

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Articles from The Guardian - March 17, 2020

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Coronavirus.gov Webpage - Healthcare professionals:  Frequently Asked Questions (updated March 17). - March 17, 2020

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy - Free, New Online JAMA Infographic. - March 17, 2020

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Articles from STAT - March 17, 2020

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Climate Similar in Cities With Biggest Outbreaks of COVID-19 - News brief from HealthDay. - March 17, 2020

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News Summaries from Kaiser Health News - March 17, 2020

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CDC Releases New Documents - March 16, 2020

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Impact of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) To Reduce COVID-19 Mortality and Healthcare Demand – (20-page pdf) - March 16, 2020

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Coronavirus: CDC Tips for Extended Use and Reuse of N95 Respirators - Article from Medical Economics.  Document from the CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). - March 16, 2020

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A Statement from the International Society of Hypertension on COVID-19 - “… there is no good evidence to change the use of ACE-inhibitors or ARBs for the management of raised blood pressure in the context of avoiding or treating COVID-19 infection.” - March 16, 2020

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Articles from HealthLeaders Media - March 16, 2020

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NIH Clinical Trial of Investigational Vaccine for COVID-19 Begins - News release from the National Institutes of Health. - March 16, 2020

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News Summaries/Articles from Kaiser Health News - March 16, 2020

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Articles from The Hill - March 16, 2020

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ASN March 11 Webinar on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19). - from Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety (NTDS) - March 15, 2020

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What the COVID-19 Means for Kidney Patients - 1-hour YouTube presentation (March 13) from Dialysis Patients Citizens. - March 14, 2020

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Hospital Workers across the U.S. Present Sharply Different Pictures of Their Preparedness for the Coronavirus - Article from STAT. - March 14, 2020

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New CPT Code Available for Reporting and Tracking COVID-19 - Article from Kidney News Online. - March 13, 2020

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CMS Emergency Preparedness & Response Operations: Current Emergencies - List of documents relating to 2020 coronavirus emergency. - March 13, 2020

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3/13/20 UPDATE: American Society of Nephrology:  Information for Screening and Management of COVID-19  in the Outpatient Dialysis Facility - (7-page page pdf) Also see the Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety (NTDS) web page for updated links. - March 13, 2020

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Network Guidance on COVID-19 Stress for Staff - Notice and web page (1-page pdf) from the Northwest Renal Network. - March 13, 2020

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News Summaries from Kaiser Health News - March 13, 2020

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Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China - Free, full-text, New Online article from JAMA Internal Medicine. - March 13, 2020

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From Containment to Mitigation of COVID-19 in the US - Free, full-text, New Online article from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - March 13, 2020

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Coronavirus and Dialysis Patients: Where is the Contingency Plan?
Article from Nephrology Times. - March 13, 2020

“… under ordinary circumstances, the dialysis staff—nurses, technicians, and doctors—and the other dialysis patients would ordinarily be told to self-quarantine for 2 weeks until they test negative. But then how and where would dialysis be provided?  The coronavirus epidemic is poised to test every aspect of care in our dialysis unit.”

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First Known Person-To-Person Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA - Free, full-text, Online First article from The Lancet. - March 13, 2020

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Coronavirus Epidemic and Extracorporeal Therapies in Intensive Care: si vis pacem para bellum - Free, full-text, Online First editorial from Blood Purification. - March 13, 2020

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Analysis of Early Renal Injury in COVID-19 and Diagnostic Value of Multi-Index Combined Detection - Free, full-text, Preprint article from medRxiv. - March 12, 2020

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Are Kidneys Targeted by the Novel Coronavirus? - (2-page pdf) Press release from ERA-EDTA. - March 12, 2020

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Dialysis Must Continue Despite COVID-19; CDC Provides Guidance (Summary of ASN’s March 11th Webinar) - (Registration required, but free.)  Articles from Medscape Nephrology and Healio. - March 12, 2020

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia in a Hemodialysis Patient - Free, full-text, Article in Press case report from Kidney Medicine. - March 12, 2020

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Supporting the Health Care Workforce During the COVID-19 Global Epidemic - Free, full-text, New Online article from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - March 12, 2020

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Recording of National Nurses United COVID-19 Update Call Available on Website - March 12th  recording of 38-minute call. - March 12, 2020

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COVID-19 and the Heart: Insights From the Front Lines (Italy) - Article from TCTMD. - March 12, 2020

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Essential Clinician Commentary on COVID-19 Coronavirus from the KevinMD Community - Postings from the KevinMD blog. - March 12, 2020

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Researchers Predict Potential Spread and Seasonality for COVID-19 Based on Climate Where Virus Appears to Thrive — Maps of Outbreaks Indicate Virus Spreads More Easily in Cold, Damp Climates - Press release from the University of Maryland Medical Center. - March 12, 2020

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COVID-19: EPA Releases List of Registered Disinfectants - Article from HealthLeaders Media. - March 12, 2020

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What Is “Social Distancing” and Should We Be Doing It? - Press release from University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. - March 12, 2020

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The Human Toll of China’s Coronavirus Control Efforts - Article from Human Rights Watch. - March 12, 2020

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News Summaries from Kaiser Health News - March 12, 2020

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Information on COVID19 from the Infectious Disease Association of California (IDAC) Northern California Winter Symposium on Saturday March 7th - Tweet thread by Graham Abra. - March 12, 2020

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Coronavirus Is Keeping Me Home From Work. Will I Get Paid? - Article from Kaiser Health News. - March 12, 2020

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Slides from ASN’s March 11 Webinar on COVID-19 - 24-page pdf. - March 11, 2020

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Trump Wrongly Said Health Insurers Will Pay For All Coronavirus Treatment - Article from Kaiser Health News. - March 11, 2020

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TED Talk — Coronavirus Is Our Future - 17-minute video.  Global health expert Alanna Shaikh talks about the current status of the 2019 nCov coronavirus outbreak and what this can teach us about the epidemics yet to come. - March 11, 2020

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Algorithms Developed by Northwest Kidney Centers in Seattle for COVID-19 - March 11, 2020

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WHO Declares Coronavirus a Pandemic - Articles from HealthDay and STAT. - March 11, 2020

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Suggestion from Italy for All Dialysis Units - Tweet from Paola Romagnani. - March 11, 2020

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Tests Indicate Coronavirus Can Survive in the Air - Article from The Hill. - March 11, 2020

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Topic Discussion: COVID-19 and Hemodialysis Patients - Posting from the NephronPower blog. - March 11, 2020

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COVID-19 Information for Renal Patients - Resource from The Renal Association (UK). - March 11, 2020

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Management of Dialysis Patients during the Current Coronavirus Outbreak - (2-page pdf)  Article from ERA-EDTA. - March 11, 2020

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Woodcock: Naming Drugs In Shortage From COVID-19 Could Cause Alarm - Article extract from InsideHealthPolicy. com. - March 11, 2020

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COVID-19 Outbreak Impacting U.S., China Relations - News summary from the Kaiser Family Foundation. - March 11, 2020

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Articles from Internal Medicine News - March 11, 2020

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10 Medical Conditions the CDC Says May Increase the Risk of Severe Coronavirus Illness - Article from The Mercury News (San Jose, CA). - March 11, 2020

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Virtually Perfect? Telemedicine for Covid-19 - Free, full-text, Recently Published article from the New England Journal of Medicine. - March 11, 2020

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Free, Open Access Articles from BMC Nephrology - March 11, 2020

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Prevalence of Infections and Antimicrobial Use among Hemodialysis Outpatients: a Prospective Multicenter Study - Early View Abstract from Seminars in Dialysis. - March 11, 2020

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The Worst Outcome — If Somebody Other Than Donald Trump Were in the White House, the Coronavirus Crisis Would Not Be Unfolding This Way. - Article from The Atlantic. - March 11, 2020

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Free, Full-Text, Latest Articles from Annals of Internal Medicine - March 11, 2020

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News Summaries from Kaiser Health News - March 11, 2020

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Articles from STAT - March 11, 2020

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Articles from The Hill - March 11, 2020

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Guidance for Infection Control and Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Dialysis Facilities - (7-page pdf)  March 10th CMS memo to State Survey Agency Directors. - March 10, 2020

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Coronavirus: Why You Must Act Now - Article from Medium.  “Best article” recommended in tweet by Trish Greenhalgh. - March 10, 2020

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Interim Additional Guidance for Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19 in Outpatient Hemodialysis Facilities - CDC guidance dated March 10, 2020. - March 10, 2020

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Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Settings - Updated CDC guidance dated March 10, 2020. - March 10, 2020

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COVID-19 Response News Alert: CMS Issues Key Protective Mask Guidance for Healthcare Workers - CMS press release. - March 10, 2020

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Report: Some Hospitals Running Short of 3M’s N95 Masks amid Coronavirus Outbreak - Article from MassDevice. - March 10, 2020

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As CDC Further Weakens COVID-19 Guidance, Nurses Outraged by Failed Federal, State, Local, Employer Efforts Stage Day of Action Wednesday to Demand Protections for Nurses, Patients, Public - Press release from National Nurses United. - March 10, 2020

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Articles from STAT - March 10, 2020

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How Serious is the Coronavirus? Infectious Disease Expert Michael Osterholm Explains | Excerpt of Joe Rogan Experience Interview on March 9th - 15min30sec YouTube video.  Interesting comment about ESRD patients at 14:35.  Full interview is on a variety of infectious disease topics and continues for 1 hr 34 min. - March 10, 2020

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Possible Emerging Pattern of COVID-19 and Severe AKI - Tweet from Claudio Ronco on two patients in Italy. - March 10, 2020

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Postings and Responses on COVID-19 Topics from the Dialysis Discussion Uncensored Facebook Page - March 10, 2020

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Coronavirus Expands Kidney Patient Virtual Engagement with White House and Congress - Press release from the American Association of Kidney Patients. - March 10, 2020

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Healthcare Not Top Priority in COVID-19 Economic Relief Talks - Article from Modern Healthcare. - March 10, 2020

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Outbreak Urgency May Intersect with Broader Health Bill Effort - Article from Roll Call. - March 10, 2020

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Mapping Misinformation In The Coronavirus Outbreak - Posting from the Health Affairs blog. - March 10, 2020

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News Summaries from Kaiser Health News - March 10, 2020

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CMS Press Releases - March 10, 2020

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Coronavirus Can Travel Twice As Far As Official ‘Safe Distance’, Study Says - Tweet from Daniel Coyne. - March 10, 2020

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Be Prepared: Kidney Patient Prep for Coronavirus - Information from the National Kidney Foundation. - March 2020

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Articles from STAT - March 10, 2020

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Press Releases from CMS - March 9, 2020

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Individual Response to COVID-19 ‘As Important’ As Government Action - Press release from the University of Oxford. - March 9, 2020

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New Study on COVID-19 Estimates 5.1 Days for Incubation Period - Press releases from Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and the American College of Physicians.  Free, full-text, Latest Article from Annals of Internal Medicine. - March 9, 2020

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News Summaries from Kaiser Health News - March 9, 2020

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Coronavirus Update: FDA and FTC Warn Seven Companies Selling Fraudulent Products that Claim to Treat or Prevent COVID-19 - FDA news release. - March 9, 2020

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Coronavirus Funding Bill Expands Medicare Telemedicine Options That May Last Far Longer Than Outbreak - News summary from Kaiser Health News. - March 9, 2020

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COVID-19 Resources - March 9, 2020

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Updated Guidance on Evaluating and Testing Persons for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - March 8th guidance from the CDC Health Alert Network. - March 8, 2020

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The Novel Coronavirus 2019 Epidemic and Kidneys - Free, Open Access, Article in Press from Kidney International. - March 7, 2020

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Nephrology and COVID-19: University of New Mexico Health Sciences Shares Their Plan - Long tweet thread from Christos Argyropoulos. - March 7, 2020

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Another Coronavirus Risk: America’s Dependence On Chinese Pharmaceuticals - Articles from Texas A&M University and the Council on Foreign Relations. - March 6, 2020

“… and 40–45 percent of heparin imported to the United States came from China, according to the U.S. Commerce Department.” – CFR article
_
Editor’s note: 
 According to this 2019 testimony,  “The U.S. and the world depend on China for an estimated 80 percent of the pig intestines to make heparin, …”

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Simple Graphic Explains Importance of Protective/Preventive Measures - Tweet thread from Carl T. Bergstrom.  Related tweet about Italy from Rachel Donadio.  Related articles from HealthDay and the BBC. - March 6, 2020

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Articles from Kaiser Health News - March 6, 2020

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COVID-19 Response News Alert: CMS Issues Frequently Asked Questions to Assist Medicare Providers - CMS press release. - March 6, 2020

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Fresenius Medical Care Dialysis Facility in Seriate, Italy and COVID19 - Tweet from Spiros Arampatzis. - March 5, 2020

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Hong Kong Study Shows Best Practices Protect Healthcare Workers from COVID-19 - Press release from the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. - March 5, 2020

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During A Pandemic, States’ Patchwork Of Crisis Strategies Could Mean Uneven Care - Article and news summary from Kaiser Health News. - March 5, 2020

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Nursing Organizations on the Coronavirus - March 5, 2020

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CMS Press Releases - March 5, 2020

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First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States - Free, full-text article from The New England Journal of Medicine. - March 5, 2020

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Information for Screening and Management of COVID-19 in the Outpatient Dialysis Facility - (6-page pdf)  Updated information (March 4) from the American Society of Nephrology. - March 4, 2020

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CMS Suspends Survey Activities; Will Focus on Infection Control - (12-page pdf) Memo to State Survey Agency Directors.  Press release from CMS. - March 4, 2020
Last among the newly announced priorities are… “dialysis centers that have a history of infection control deficiencies at lower levels than immediate jeopardy.”

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Dialysis Facilities Brace for COVID-19 - Article from Renal & Urology News. - March 4, 2020

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COVID-19 and the Kidney - Posting from the NephronPower blog. - March 4, 2020

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House Passes Coronavirus Funding Package; CDC Removes Testing Restrictions - News brief from the American Hospital Association. - March 4, 2020

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Trump’s Immigration Policies Will Make the Coronavirus Pandemic Worse - Article from STAT. - March 4, 2020

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Coronavirus Stress Test: Many 5-Star Nursing Homes Have Infection-Control Lapses - Article from Kaiser Health News. - March 4, 2020

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AJKD Podcast: Vaccines for Patients with CKD - Posting from the AJKD blog. - February 28, 2020

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News Summaries from Kaiser Health News - February 28, 2020

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Coronavirus (COVID-19) Supply Chain Update - FDA statement. - February 27, 2020

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Whistleblower Claims HHS Did Not Train Workers Caring for Coronavirus Patients: Report - Article from The Hill. - February 27, 2020

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What Should You Do In The Face Of Potential U.S. Coronavirus Outbreak? Keep Calm And Carry On - News summary from Kaiser Health News. - February 27, 2020

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A Critical Question in Getting a Handle on Coronavirus: What Role Do Kids Play in Spreading It? - Article from STAT. - February 27, 2020

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New California Coronavirus Case Reveals Problems with U.S. Testing Protocols - Article from Kaiser Health News. - February 27, 2020

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New ICD-10 Codes for COVID-19 Coronavirus - Posting from the Northwest Renal Network. - February 27, 2020

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Trump’s No Stranger to Misinformation. But with the Coronavirus, Experts Say That’s Dangerous - Article from STAT. - February 26, 2020

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More Countries Report Coronavirus Cases, as Outbreak in U.S. Looks Certain - Article from HealthDay. - February 26, 2020

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Coronavirus Cases among Health Workers Climb, Underscoring the Chaos on an Outbreak’s Front Lines - Article from STAT. - February 25, 2020

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COVID-19 Coronavirus Has Potential To Disrupt Global Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) Supply Chains - Article from Healthcare Finance. - February 25, 2020

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Diabetes, CVD Tied to Worse Prognosis for COVID-19 Infection - (Registration required, but free.)  Article from Medscape Nephrology. - February 25, 2020

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COVID-19 Moving toward a Pandemic - News brief from the Mayo Clinic. - February 24, 2020

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Utility of Rapid Influenza Molecular Testing in an Outpatient Hemodialysis Unit: A Prospective Cohort Study - Free, Open Access article from Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease. - February 23, 2020

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Coronavirus Outbreak Could Cause Shortages of 150 Drugs: Report - Article from The Hill and Axios. - February 23, 2020

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Free, Full-Text Articles from the Journal of the American Medical Association - February 7, 2020

 
Top of Page

  HEMODIALYSIS VASCULAR ACCESS INFECTIONS

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Dialysis Audit Tools: Includes pdfs for hemodialysis hand hygiene, catheter connect/disconnect, exit site care, and AV fistula/graft decannualation and Dialysis Checklists: Includes pdfs for catheter connect, catheter disconnect, exit site care, cannulation, and decannulation from the CDC's Safe Healthcare Blog about the Dialysis Bloodstream Infection (BSI web page) Prevention Collaborative

blue ball Guide to the Elimination of Infections in Hemodialysis - 78-page (pdf) document from the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) web site
blue ball 2011 Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter Related Infections - 83-page (pdf) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
blue ball Guideline for Prevention of Intravascular Device-related Infections - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2002
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Patient Pocket Guide: 6 Tips to Prevent Dialysis Infections - Download file from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. - October 2013

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Reducing Bloodstream Infections in an Outpatient Hemodialysis Center — New Jersey, 2008–2011 - Article from the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. - March 16, 2012

blue ball Vital Signs: Central Line--Associated Blood Stream Infections --- United States, 2001, 2008, and 2009 - Article from the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The article mentions the word "dialysis" 42 times. - March 2011
"The majority of central line--associated blood stream infections are now occurring outside of ICUs, many outside of hospitals altogether, especially in outpatient dialysis clinics."
K/DOQI™ Clinical Practice Guidelines for Vascular Access
infection control AND hemodialysis - Pubmed search  Continually Updated!
infection control AND access AND hemodialysis - Pubmed search  Continually Updated!
 

  PERITONEAL CATHETER INFECTIONS

ISPD Position Statement on Reducing the Risks of Peritoneal Dialysis–Related Infections (pdf format) - from the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) 2011 - (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat reader)
Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Peritonitis in Pediatric Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis - from the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD)
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ISPD Peritonitis Recommendations: 2016 Update on Prevention and Treatment - Free, Open Access article from Peritoneal Dialysis International. - September/October 2016

infection control AND peritoneal dialysis - Pubmed search  Continually Updated!
infection control AND catheter AND peritoneal - Pubmed search  Continually Updated!
 

  ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE

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CDC Antibiotic Stewardship Online Course - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (ITFAR) - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms In Healthcare Settings, 2006 release from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - 2006
MRSA in Healthcare Settings from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections Among Dialysis Patients --- United States, 2005 from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - March 9, 2007
Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in the United States - (pdf) article from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - October 16, 2007
Staphylococcus aureus Resistant to Vancomycin --- United States, 2002 - from the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - July 5, 2002

Toolkit for Reduction of Clostridium difficile Infections Through Antimicrobial Stewardship - Resource from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. - September 2012

HHS Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance - press release from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Antimicrobial Resistance - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Antibiotic (Drug) Resistance - from the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Antibiotic Resistant Drug Information - from the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
Washington state's campaign to fight antibiotic resistance - from the Washington State Health Department
VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci) and dialysis - Pubmed search   Continually Updated!
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and dialysis - Pubmed search   Continually Updated!
 

  NEEDLESTICK PREVENTION

Workbook for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Sharps Injury Prevention Program - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2004
Emergency Needlestick Information - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2008
Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis - article from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - September 2013
Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis - (pdf) article from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - June 2001
Needlestick Prevention from OSHA
Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens: Needlestick and Other Sharps Injuries, Final Rule from OSHA
Bloodborne Pathogens Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements from the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
needlestick injuries - Pubmed search   Continually Updated!
 

  HEPATITIS

Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Hepatitis

Viral Hepatitis web pages from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) web site

Hepatitis C Guideline Educational Tools - Resource from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). - March 2011
Hepatitis A, B, and C: Learn the Differences (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat reader) from the Immunization Action Coalition web site
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Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis. The MMWR report also includes:

  • Appendix A: Practice Recommendations for Health-Care Facilities Implementing the U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens.
  • Appendix B: Management of Occupational Blood Exposures.
  • Appendix C: Basic and Expanded HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis Regime

Viral Hepatitis Recommendations and Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):

Executive summary of the 2018 KDIGO Hepatitis C in CKD Guideline: welcoming advances in evaluation and management (Kidney International October 2018)
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Free Continuing Education — Management of Hepatitis C in Late Stage CKD Patients: WHO, How, and When to Treat? - Resource from the National Kidney Foundation. - August 2017

Revision to OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogens Standard and Frequently Asked Questions - April 2001
National Institute of Health Consensus Development Program: Management of Hepatitis C. 2002
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Free, Full-Text Articles from Annals Of Internal Medicine - July 1, 2014

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and HCV-Related Chronic Disease from the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - Oct. 16, 1998

CDC Recommended Practices for Infection Prevention in HD Facilities

An online continuing education training course, Infection Prevention in Dialysis Settings, that offers free CNE and CEU credits for dialysis nurses and technicians (see additional information at http://www.cdc.gov/dialysis/clinician/CE/infection-prevent-outpatient-hemo.html). Launched June 2012.

blue ball Infection Control in Healthcare Personnel: Infrastructure and Routine Practices for Occupational Infection Prevention and Control Services (2019) - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

CDC’s Core Interventions for Dialysis Bloodstream Infection Prevention - In an effort to decrease rates of bloodstream infections among hemodialysis patients, the CDC Dialysis Bloodstream Infection Prevention Collaborative has developed this set of interventions that participating facilities have implemented.

Dialysis Bloodstream Infection Prevention Audit Tools - Facilities can use the audit tools to assess how well their staff is adhering to CDC-recommended practices. Audit tool results should be regularly reviewed with staff to help promote desired practices and inform quality improvement projects.

Dialysis Bloodstream Infection Prevention Checklist Tools - Facilities can implement the checklist tools during orientation or training of newly hired staff. They may also be used as a resource during infection prevention education or as a posted reminder of recommended practices.

Dialysis Bloodstream Infection Prevention Protocols - Facilities can use the protocols to promote CDC-recommended practices for infection prevention in hemodialysis facilities.

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Notices from the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

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CDC Podcast — Dialysis: Reducing Infections and Changing Culture - 11-minute audio recording. - March 2018

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CDC/STRIVE Infection Control Training - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has released the first in a new series of free online training courses to help health care organizations. The first courses cover competency-based training, hand hygiene and strategies for preventing healthcare-associated infections. - August 2019

CDC’s Dialysis Safety Website: www.cdc.gov/dialysis

  WEB RESOURCES

Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Dialysis and Transplant Infections

AHRQ Toolkit - Resource from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The ESRD Toolkit was created to help end-stage renal disease clinics prevent healthcare-associated infections in dialysis patients.  - January 2015

AIDS Info from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Biofilms: Microbial Life on Surfaces from the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases
CDC has an extensive list of resources for bioterrorism

Clinical Pharmacology of Antibiotics full-text article from CJASN

Compliance Control from HyGenius: The Importance of Hand-Washing - web page
Flu (Influenza) Health Topic from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Good Health Habits for Preventing the Flu from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - October 6, 2006
Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff - Medical Glove Guidance Manual - (pdf) guidance from the FDA Medical Devices Section - January 22, 2008
Guidance for Industry: Assessing Donor Suitability and Blood and Blood Product Safety in Cases of Known or Suspected West Nile Virus Infection (pdf) from the FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)
Hand Hygiene - Video from The New England Journal of Medicine. - March 2011
Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI) and 2011 National and State Healthcare-associated Infections Standardized Infection Ratio Report - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) Publications: Needle Tips

Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) Publications: Vaccinate Adults

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Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2018 - from the Annals of Internal Medicine - February 2018

Infection Control Requirements for Dialysis Facilities and Clarification Regarding Guidance on Parenteral Medication Vials - from the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report via JAMA - November 5, 2008
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Infection Control Tools - Posting from the Northwest Renal Network. - May 3, 2019

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Infection Control Tools - List of resources from the Northwest Renal Network. - February 2020

blue ball Infection Prevention Guide and Checklist for Outpatient Care Settings - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) - July 2011
blue ball Influenza (Flu) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
blue ball Information for Healthcare Providers and Patient and Provider Education Materials from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Immunization Information Systems from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

OSHA web site information on bloodborne pathogens

Pandemic Flu

Protect Yourself Poster - poster on bloodborne exposures to pathogens from the CDC web site - January 2008
2008 Quick Reference Chart on Immunization for Providers - (pdf) from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services web site
Sepsis Alliance web site
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) from the World Health Organization (WHO)

Tuberculosis from the OSHA web site

Use of Anthrax Vaccine in Response to Terrorism: Supplemental Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices from the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - November 15, 2002
West Nile Virus (WNV) Infection: Information for Clinicians and West Nile Virus Basics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. (APIC) web site
Infection Control Today web site
Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) web site
The International Health Care Worker Safety Center's Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) web site
International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) web site
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) web site
U.S. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) web site
blue ball U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NIOSH/CDC) web site
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Virtual Mentor Curriculum on Infection Prevention - (164-slide pdf) Resource from the Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety (NTDS) program of the American Society of Nephrology  - January 2018

 
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  ESSENTIALS AND CLASSICS

Influenza information and guidelines from the CDC
Bloodborne Infectious Diseases HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus - information from the National Institutue for Occupational Safetyand Health - March 2008 
Guidelines for Vaccinating Kidney Dialysis Patients and Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (pdf) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - December 2012
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Online Learning Module: Managing Infections in an Outpatient Dialysis Facility - 90-minute video from Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety (NTDS). - February 2020

Sterilants and High Level Disinfectants Cleared by FDA in a 510(k) with General Claims for Processing Reusable Medical Devices from the FDA's Medical Devices - March 2015
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations for Bloodborne Pathogens (1910.1030). Here is a list of fact sheets.
 
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  CLINICAL GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Compendium of strategies to prevent and treat staph and C difficile infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, bloodstream infections caused by central-line catheters, and urinary tract and surgical site infections - from Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology - October 8, 2008
Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Peritonitis in Pediatric Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis - (pdf) from the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) - 2000
blue ball Clinical Practice Guideline Management of Blood Borne Viruses within the Hemodialysis Unit - article from BMC Nephrology.
Infection Control Requirements for Dialysis Facilities and Clarification Regarding Guidance on Parenteral Medication Vials - from MMWR/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - August 15, 2008
2011 Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Infection Control Measures for Preventing and Controlling Influenza Transmission in Long-Term Care Facilities - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2010
Recommendations for Using Antiviral Agents for Influenza - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Guidelines for Preventing Health-Care-Associated Pneumonia, 2003 - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2004
ISPD Position Statement on Reducing the Risks of Peritoneal Dialysis–Related Infections - from the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) - 2011
Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Peritonitis in Pediatric Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis - (pdf) from the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) - 2000
CDC’s Interim Guidance for Environmental Infection Control in Hospitals for Ebola Virus - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings - 2002 - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings 2007 - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - June 2007
Guideline for Prevention of Intravascular Device-related Infections - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2002
Guidelines for the Management of Intravascular Catheter Related Infections - from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - August 2002
Materials to Promote Hand Hygiene in your Healthcare Facility - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Data and Statistics for Dialysis-associated Outcomes - from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Recommendations for Preventing Transmission of Infections Among Chronic Hemodialysis Patients - April 2001; from the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).  
Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection - June 2000 - from the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).
Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005 - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - December 2005
Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities - (pdf) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2008
blue ball U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis (Click here for the pdf format version) - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2001
Interim Guidance for Protecting Workers from Occupational Exposure to Zika Virus - (7-page pdf) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - 2016
Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis - from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - 2005
Vaccine recommendations for patients on chronic dialysis - The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics - abstract from Seminars in Dialysis - March 2000
Vaccine recommendations and/or guidelines from the Center for Disease Control (CDC)
  * Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule: United States, 2013 - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) - February 2013
  * Influenza Vaccination - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  * Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2008 - July 17, 2008
  * Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) - May 2005
  * Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule for the United States, 2012  - February 2012
  * Use of Anthrax Vaccine in Response to Terrorism: Supplemental Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - November 15, 2002
  * Influenza Vaccination of Health-Care Personnel - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) - February 2006
  * Use of Standing Orders Programs to Increase Adult Vaccination Rates - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) - March 2000
 
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  DISCUSSION FORUM

Vascular Access Issues on RenalWEB
General Nursing Discussion Forum - RenalWEB Discussion Forum
 
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  STATISTICS

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004 (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat reader) - from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States. Approximately 3.9 million (1.8%) persons in the United States are infected with HCV. About 7% of these may have acquired their infection from blood transfusion. Source: CDC Fact Sheet on Hepatitis C.
After needle stick or sharps exposure to HCV positive blood, about 2 (1.8%) healthcare workers out of 100 will get infected with HCV (range 0%-10%) - from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
 
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  UPCOMING EVENTS

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Selected Events - NIAID web site
FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Sponsored Workshops and Meetings and Presentations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Conferences and Events
 
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  RELATED TOPICS

Guidelines & Recommendations for Immunizations - infection control practices from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
AIDS (auto immune deficiency syndrome) and dialysis - PubMed search - Continually Updated!
hepatitis AND dialysis - PubMed search - Continually Updated!
hepatitis B - PubMed search - Continually Updated!
hepatitis C - PubMed search - Continually Updated!
hepatitis AND vaccine - PubMed search - Continually Updated!
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS

E-mail to RenalWEB on the Hepatitis Topic
 
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