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Last Updated 1/12/20

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is permanent kidney damage due to injury or disease. More than 20 million Americans-one in nine adults-have chronic kidney disease, and most don't even know it. More than 20 million others are at increased risk.

How long you can live with CKD depends on your age, other health problems, and how involved you become in your care. Some people with early CKD never experience kidney failure. Others reach kidney failure (end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) and live for decades with dialysis or kidney transplants.

Simple tests in a doctor's office can detect chronic kidney disease in its early stages when lifestyle changes and medication can be prescribed to delay or prevent the progression of kidney disease and its complications. Left untreated, chronic kidney disease may ultimately lead to kidney failure and/or heart disease.

There are many risk factors that make having CKD more likely, with the leading risk factors being diabetes, hypertension, and a family history of CKD.

Warning: Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  All patients have unique healthcare concerns and considerations and these must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.

  NEWS and LATEST ARTICLES

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Delivering on the Opportunities of 2019: How the Kidney Health Initiative Will Provide Innovation for People with Kidney Disease - Article from Kidney News Online. - January 2020

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Articles from Healio (registration required) - January 2020

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Free, Full-Text Articles from Kidney International - January 2020

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Free, Full-Text Articles from American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 2020

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Hospital Utilization and Costs in Older Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Choosing Conservative Care or Dialysis: A Retrospective Cohort Study - Online First Abstract from Blood Purification. - January 10, 2020

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Heart Disease Linked to a Higher Risk of Kidney Failure - Press release and Published Ahead of Print JASN abstract from the American Society of Nephrology.  Article from HealthDay. - January 9, 2020

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Renal Replacement Knowledge and Preferences for African Americans With Chronic Kidney Disease - Early View abstract from Journal of Renal Care. - January 9, 2020

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Discovery of Gene That Modifies the Severity of Inherited Kidney Disease - Press release from Newcastle University. - January 9, 2020

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Association of Ankle-Brachial and Toe-Brachial Indices With Mortality in Patients With CKD - Free, full-text, Article in Press from Kidney Medicine. - January 7, 2020

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Lupus Nephritis Class IV-Global Is Associated with a Higher Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease than Class IV-Segmental - Online First abstract from Nephron. - January 7, 2020

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Intraoperative Arterial Pressure Variability and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury - Published Ahead of Print CJASN abstract. - January 7, 2020

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Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality from Renal Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Hong Kong - Accepted Manuscript abstract from American Journal of Epidemiology. - January 6, 2020

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Liberation From Acute Dialysis - New, not yet recruiting study from ClinicalTrials.gov. - January 6, 2020

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What Every Nephrologist Should Know about the Advancing American Kidney Health (AAKH) Initiative - 8-minute video by Graham Abra, MD. - January 6, 2020

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Kidney Disease Up as Prescribing Errors Exacerbate the Problem - (Registration required, but free.) Article from Medscape Nephrology. - January 6, 2020

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Survival Advantage of Initiating Dialysis in Elderly and Non-Elderly Incident End Stage Kidney Disease Patients - Accepted Article abstract from Nephrology. - January 4, 2020

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Kidney Care Choices (KCC) Model RFA Clarifications - (1-page pdf) This document intends to communicate clarifications to the Kidney Care Choices (KCC) Model’s Request for Applications (RFA) (84-page pdf) since its posting on October 24, 2019. Related article from Kidney News Online. - January 3, 2020

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Non-Medical Barriers Reported by Nephrologists When Providing Renal Replacement Therapy or Comprehensive Conservative Management to End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review - Advance Article abstract from NDT. - January 3, 2020

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CMS TEP on Delaying CKD Progression - Posting from the Northwest Renal Network. - January 3, 2020

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New Poll of American Adults Shows People Should Start the New Year Focused on Kidney Health - Press release from the National Kidney Foundation. - January 2, 2020

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Incremental Cost of Acute Kidney Injury after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the United States - Full-text article from The American Journal of Cardiology. - January 1, 2020

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Disrupting Nephrology: From Technology to Developing Organs-on-Chips - Article from Kidney News Online. - December 2019

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Burden of Acute Kidney Injury and 90-Day Mortality in Critically Ill Patients - Free, Open Access Article from BMC Nephrology. - December 31, 2019

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Mayo Clinic Researchers Test Novel Injection of Gene Therapy Vectors into the Kidney - Press relese from Human Gene Therapy. - December 31, 2019

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Occupational Kidney Stones - Published Ahead of Print abstract from Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. - December 30, 2019

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Estimating the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Use of Diuretics and Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System Inhibitors: a Population Based Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink - Free, Open Access Article from BMC Nephrology. - December 30, 2019

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Preservation of Renal Function in Cardiac Surgery Patients With Low Cardiac Output Syndrome — Levosimendan vs Beta Agonists - (Registration required, but free.) Article from BMC Anesthesiology via Medscape Nephrology. - December 30, 2019

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Bariatric Surgery in Teens May Cut Diabetic Kidney Disease Risk - Article from HealthDay. - December 27, 2019

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Risk of Kidney-Cancer Recurrence Persists Beyond 5 Years After Surgery - (Registration required, but free.) Reuters Health article via Medscape Nephrology. - December 26, 2019

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Articles from Medscape Nephrology (registration required) - December 23, 2019

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Preventing Chronic Kidney Disease in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs): a Call for Urgent Action - Free, full-text, Article in Press from Kidney International Reports. - December 23, 2019

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Artificial Intelligence Approaches to Improve Kidney Care - Abstract from Nature Reviews Nephrology. - December 23, 2019

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Positive Association between Intra-Operative Fluid Balance and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Non-Cardiac Surgery: the NARA-AKI Cohort Study - Online First Abstract from Journal of Nephrology. - December 21, 2019

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The Acute Kidney Outreach to Prevent Deterioration and Death Trial: a Large Pilot Study for a Cluster Randomized Trial - Advance Articles Abstract from NDT. - December 20, 2019

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Clinical Characteristics of and Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease Among Adults and Children — An Analysis of the CURE-CKD Registry - New Online abstract from JAMA Open Network. - December 20, 2019

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Sphingotec's Biomarker penKid® Predicts Septic Acute Kidney Injury - Press release from Sphingotec GMBH. - December 20, 2019

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Finding Familiar Pathways in Kidney Cancer - Press release from Thomas Jefferson University. - December 20, 2019

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Free, Full-Text Articles in Press from American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 19 & 23, 2019

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Number of People in Need of Renal Replacement Therapy Is Rising - Press release from ERA-EDTA. - December 19, 2019

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The Role of Endothelin and Endothelin Antagonists in Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, Open AccessOnline First review article from Kidney Diseases. - December 18, 2019

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Alnylam Gene-Silencing Therapy to Treat Kidney Disorder (hyperoxyluria) Succeeds in Late-Stage Study - Article from Reuters. - December 18, 2019

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InterWell Health to Provide Population Health Management for Nation's Renal Patients - Press release from Fresenius Medical Care. - December 18, 2019

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Articles in Press Abstracts from American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019

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Preventing Chronic Kidney Disease in Developed Countries - Free, full-text, Article in Press from Kidney International Reports. - December 18, 2019

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Free, Full-Text, Online First Articles from Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019

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Update: The Advancing American Kidney Health Initiative - Information from the National Kidney Foundation. - December 17, 2019

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Association Between APOL1 Genotype and Need for Kidney Replacement Therapy in Patients Without Diabetes: Does Age Matter? - Free, Full-Text, Articles in Press from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - December 16, 2019

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Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury in Intensive Care Units in Beijing: The Multi-Center BAKIT Study - Free, Open Access article from BMC Nephrology. - December 16, 2019

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Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mortality for Patients on Dialysis in U.S. Territories and States - Press release from the American Society of Nephrology. Article from HealthDay. Free, full-text, Published Ahead of Print CJASN articles - December 13, 2019

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US Trends in Hospitalizations for Dialysis-Requiring Acute Kidney Injury in People With Versus Without Diabetes - Article in Press abstract from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - December 13, 2019

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10 Amazing Breakthroughs for Kidney Health in 2019 - News Release from the National Kidney Foundation. - November 2019

 
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  WEB RESOURCES

blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney Beginnings: A Patient’s Guide to Living with Reduced Kidney Function - from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
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Acute Kidney Injury ~ Clinical Issues  and Acute Kidney Injury ~ Financial/Payment/Billing Issues  fact sheets (PDFs) from ANNA

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Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Patients - (1-page pdf) Medicare coverage summary and resources from Northwest Renal Network

About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from The National Kidney Foundation web site
American Diabetes Association web site
Are You At Risk for Kidney Disease? from the American Kidney Fund web site
Barriers to successful care for chronic kidney disease (pdf) from BMC Nephrology - October 27, 2005

CDC's Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative - The CKD Initiative currently includes surveillance, epidemiology, and state-based demonstration projects and economic studies in collaboration with partners from other government agencies, universities, and national organizations.

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blue ball Chronic Kidney Disease Change Package from The National Kidney Foundation web site
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Chronic Kidney Disease from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
Chronic Kidney Disease from the Hypertension, Dialysis, & Clinical Nephrology (HDCN) web site
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Chronic Kidney Disease patient page from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - May 24/31, 2016

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Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Kidney Disease — Fundamental Principles - Free, Full-Text, CJASN Express Articles - June 2018

blue ball Consensus Expert Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Report of an International Conference (pdf) from the Journal of Pediatrics
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Free eBook To Know about the Correct Way to Prevent and Treat Kidney Failure a 'Common Man's Guide' for World Kidney Day. - March 2019

blue ball Diabetic Kidney Disease - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
Education and Teaching Resources from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh Renal Unit web site
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ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (covers 2015 data) - (150-page pdf) The ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) via the national and regional renal registries in Europe and countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. For this 2015 Annual Report data sets from 52 national or regional renal registries in 36 countries were used.

2008 ESRD Briefing Book for State and Federal Policy Makers (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - from the ANNA web site
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Essentials of Chronic Kidney Disease - KidneyTalk podcast from Renal Support Network

blue ball Frequently Asked Questions About GFR Estimates (pdf) - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
blue ball General Nephrology - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
blue ball Guide to Dialysis and Kidney Disease - from the National Council for Aging Care
How to Have a Good Future with Kidney Disease a Life Options CKD Patient Education Toolkit - 2011
blue ball Infographic: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) from the Mayo Clinic News Network
IgA nephropathy from the About web site
KEY - Kidney Education and You - free kidney education classes from the DaVita web site
Kidney Diseases from the National Institute of Health web site
Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Kidney Health Library from the Kidney & Urology Foundation of America (KUFA) web site
Life Options Rehabilitation Program Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease
Living Well with Chronic Kidney Disease (pdf) from the American Kidney Fund (AKF) web site
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Mayo Clinic Minute: Understanding Chronic Kidney Disease - 1-minute video.

Mayo Clinic Minute: When Your Kidneys Fail - video and article from the Mayo Clinic web site

blue ball Mayo Clinic Q and A: Understanding chronic kidney disease from the Mayo Clinic web site
Medicare Coverage of Kidney Dialysis & Kidney Transplant Services (pdf) from the Medicare web site
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Northwest Renal Network's Choosing a Treatment Type - 2-page pdf from the NW Renal Network - December 2012
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Educational Materials from the PKD Foundation web site
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Renal Disorders in Pregnancy: Core Curriculum 2019 - Free, full-text, Article in Press from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - August 16, 2018

10 Steps for Protecting Kidney Health from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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UK Renal Registry - 21st Annual Report - 2017 report (200-page pdf) includes a summary for patients (10-page pdf) and links to The Renal Association's guidelines

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UK's "Think Kidneys" Campaign - 2018

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Understanding Kidney Disease (Four free book chapters) - resource from ISN Education- January 2016

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Updated UK Guideline: Chronic Kidney Disease – Early Identification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care - July 2014

Uremic Toxins: What Are They? An Integrated Overview of Pathobiology and Classification from the Journal of Renal Nutrition

Video on Failing Kidneys and Different Treatment Options - Posting from the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - April 2015

What Is Your Kidney Score? from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
What You Can Do from the Life Options web site
When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease from the Nemours Foundation web site
 
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  ESSENTIALS AND CLASSICS

Chronic Kidney Disease: What Every Nurse Should Know - from the American Nephrology Nurses Association web site
  • Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease: An Overview of Causes, Stages, and Treatment
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 1 through 3
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 4 and 5: Overview of Therapy Options
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Transplantation
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Self-Care Dialysis
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Assisted Dialysis
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in the Pediatric Population
Core Curriculum: Chronic Kidney Disease - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 2007
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Updated Guideline: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care - Full-text from the National Guideline Clearinghouse. - December 2014

Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance (pdf) - article from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - September 10, 2004
Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease - recommendations from the American College of Physicians (October 2013)
Risk Factors for CKD from the Life Options web site
10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease from the Life Options web site
Frequently Asked Questions about CKD from the Life Options web site
Learn the Six Warning Signs of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disease from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
 
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  BEST CLINICAL PRACTICES

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF)
Guidelines for Managing Kidney Disease from the Canadian Medical Association
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Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines from Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - April 2016

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD5) - Free, full-text review article from Pediatric Nephrology. - September 2013

Testing for Chronic Kidney Disease: A Position Statement From the National Kidney Foundation - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - August 2007

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, full-text, Online First article from Pediatric Nephrology. - October 2012

Healthy People 2020 - National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines for managing Chronic Kidney Disease
Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral - from the Canadian Medical Association - 1999
 
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  K/DOQI™ -  Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative

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K/ DOQI Main Page on the National Kidney Foundation web site

 


  KDIGO™ -  Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes ( pronounced "kay de go" )

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) web site

  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)

Kidney Diseases (General) from MEDLINEplus Health Information
chronic kidney disease Continually Updated!
chronic kidney disease AND risk factors Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
 

  PRODUCTS

 
 

  STATISTICS

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Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2019 - Data from the CDC  - March 2019

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Eleven New Indicators of CKD Have Been Added to the Resources on the CDC's CKD Surveillance System Website - April 2018

View all indicators.

The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

Fast Facts on Kidney Disease - Statistics from the National Kidney Foundation

Average Annual Health Care Use and Expenditures for Kidney Disease among Adults 18 and Older, U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population, 2003-2007 - Statistical brief (7-page pdf) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Renal Data Extraction and Referencing (RenDER) System - new online data querying application accessible through the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) - USRDS Presentations & Posters, Researcher's Guide and the 2019 USRDS annual report - from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) web site

2017 National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet - 3-page pdf. - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

US Government Goals: Chronic Kidney Disease Chapter from the Healthy People 2020 Objectives
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Free, Open Access, Online First Articles from Nephron - December 11, 2019

statehealthfacts.org - your source for state health data
 
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  UPCOMING EVENTS

NKF Health Screening Schedule - The National Kidney Foundation's (NKF) Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - scroll down to view multiple screening dates and contact phone numbers.
The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Programs & Events
 
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  RELATED TOPICS

Dialysis Outcomes and Topics from the RenalWEB web site Continually Updated!
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS

E-mail to RenalWEB on the Chronic Kidney Disease Page
 
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