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Last Updated 03/08/20

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is permanent kidney damage due to injury or disease. More than 20 million Americans-one in nine adults-have chronic kidney disease, and most don't even know it. More than 20 million others are at increased risk.

How long you can live with CKD depends on your age, other health problems, and how involved you become in your care. Some people with early CKD never experience kidney failure. Others reach kidney failure (end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) and live for decades with dialysis or kidney transplants.

Simple tests in a doctor's office can detect chronic kidney disease in its early stages when lifestyle changes and medication can be prescribed to delay or prevent the progression of kidney disease and its complications. Left untreated, chronic kidney disease may ultimately lead to kidney failure and/or heart disease.

There are many risk factors that make having CKD more likely, with the leading risk factors being diabetes, hypertension, and a family history of CKD.

Warning: Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  All patients have unique healthcare concerns and considerations and these must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.

  NEWS and LATEST ARTICLES

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Association of Primary Care Involvement with Death or Hospitalizations for Patients Starting Dialysis - Published Ahead of Print CJASN abstract and editorial extract. - March 5, 2020

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COVID-19 and the Kidney - Posting from the NephronPower blog. - March 4, 2020

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Association between Sleep Duration and Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Analysis of the NAGALA Study - Online First article from Kidney & Blood Pressure Research. - March 4, 2020

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Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and New-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease in the General Population: the Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease (PREVEND) Study - Free, full-text, Advance Article from NDT. - March 3, 2020

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Association of Initiation of Dialysis With Hospital Length of Stay and Intensity of Care in Older Adults With Kidney Failure - Free, full-text article from JAMA Network Open.  Articles from Renal & Urology News and MedPage Today (registration required). - February 28, 2020

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Medical Mystery: Beer-Linked Kidney Failure and Paralysis - (Registration required, but free.)  Article from Medscape Nephrology. - February 27, 2020

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FDA Promises Rigorous Review of New Renal Denervation Trials - (Registration required, but free.)  Conference news from Medscape Nephrology. - February 27, 2020

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The Eye, the Kidney & Cardiovascular Disease: Old Concepts, Better Tools & New Horizons - Free, full-text, Article in Press from Kidney International. - February 26, 2020

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Disease Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: a Matched Cohort Study of Spironolactone Users and Non-users - Free, Open Access article from BMC Nephrology. - February 26, 2020

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A Major Breakthrough for the Millions of Americans on the Brink of Kidney Failure and Dialysis - Article from CNBC. - February 25, 2020

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Fine Particle Air Pollution Linked with Poor Kidney Health - Press release, Published Ahead of Print CJASN abstract, and editorial extract from the American Society of Nephrology. - February 21, 2020

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Advances in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Clinical Review - Free, full-text, Article in Press from Kidney Medicine. - February 21, 2020

 
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  WEB RESOURCES

blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney Beginnings: A Patient’s Guide to Living with Reduced Kidney Function - from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
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Acute Kidney Injury ~ Clinical Issues  and Acute Kidney Injury ~ Financial/Payment/Billing Issues  fact sheets (PDFs) from ANNA

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Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Patients - (1-page pdf) Medicare coverage summary and resources from Northwest Renal Network

About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from The National Kidney Foundation web site
American Diabetes Association web site
Are You At Risk for Kidney Disease? from the American Kidney Fund web site
Barriers to successful care for chronic kidney disease (pdf) from BMC Nephrology - October 27, 2005

CDC's Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative - The CKD Initiative currently includes surveillance, epidemiology, and state-based demonstration projects and economic studies in collaboration with partners from other government agencies, universities, and national organizations.

blue ball CKD Booklet for Professional - 7.0 edition 2015
blue ball Chronic Kidney Disease Change Package from The National Kidney Foundation web site
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Chronic Kidney Disease from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
Chronic Kidney Disease from the Hypertension, Dialysis, & Clinical Nephrology (HDCN) web site
blue ball Chronic Kidney Disease from the American Kidney Fund web site
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Chronic Kidney Disease patient page from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - May 24/31, 2016

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Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Kidney Disease — Fundamental Principles - Free, Full-Text, CJASN Express Articles - June 2018

blue ball Consensus Expert Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Report of an International Conference (pdf) from the Journal of Pediatrics
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Free eBook To Know about the Correct Way to Prevent and Treat Kidney Failure a 'Common Man's Guide' for World Kidney Day. - March 2019

blue ball Diabetic Kidney Disease - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
Education and Teaching Resources from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh Renal Unit web site
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ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (covers 2015 data) - (150-page pdf) The ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) via the national and regional renal registries in Europe and countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. For this 2015 Annual Report data sets from 52 national or regional renal registries in 36 countries were used.

2008 ESRD Briefing Book for State and Federal Policy Makers (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - from the ANNA web site
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Essentials of Chronic Kidney Disease - KidneyTalk podcast from Renal Support Network

blue ball Frequently Asked Questions About GFR Estimates (pdf) - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
blue ball General Nephrology - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
blue ball Guide to Dialysis and Kidney Disease - from the National Council for Aging Care
How to Have a Good Future with Kidney Disease a Life Options CKD Patient Education Toolkit - 2011
blue ball Infographic: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) from the Mayo Clinic News Network
IgA nephropathy from the About web site
KEY - Kidney Education and You - free kidney education classes from the DaVita web site
Kidney Diseases from the National Institute of Health web site
Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Kidney Health Library from the Kidney & Urology Foundation of America (KUFA) web site
Life Options Rehabilitation Program Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease
Living Well with Chronic Kidney Disease (pdf) from the American Kidney Fund (AKF) web site
blue ball Management of Acute Kidney Injury: Core Curriculum 2018 from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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Mayo Clinic Minute: Understanding Chronic Kidney Disease - 1-minute video.

Mayo Clinic Minute: When Your Kidneys Fail - video and article from the Mayo Clinic web site

blue ball Mayo Clinic Q and A: Understanding chronic kidney disease from the Mayo Clinic web site
Medicare Coverage of Kidney Dialysis & Kidney Transplant Services (pdf) from the Medicare web site
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Northwest Renal Network's Choosing a Treatment Type - 2-page pdf from the NW Renal Network - December 2012
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Educational Materials from the PKD Foundation web site
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Renal Disorders in Pregnancy: Core Curriculum 2019 - Free, full-text, Article in Press from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - August 16, 2018

10 Steps for Protecting Kidney Health from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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UK Renal Registry - 21st Annual Report - 2017 report (200-page pdf) includes a summary for patients (10-page pdf) and links to The Renal Association's guidelines

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UK's "Think Kidneys" Campaign - 2018

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Understanding Kidney Disease (Four free book chapters) - resource from ISN Education- January 2016

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Updated UK Guideline: Chronic Kidney Disease – Early Identification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care - July 2014

Uremic Toxins: What Are They? An Integrated Overview of Pathobiology and Classification from the Journal of Renal Nutrition

Video on Failing Kidneys and Different Treatment Options - Posting from the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - April 2015

What Is Your Kidney Score? from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
What You Can Do from the Life Options web site
When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease from the Nemours Foundation web site
 
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  ESSENTIALS AND CLASSICS

Chronic Kidney Disease: What Every Nurse Should Know - from the American Nephrology Nurses Association web site
  • Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease: An Overview of Causes, Stages, and Treatment
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 1 through 3
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 4 and 5: Overview of Therapy Options
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Transplantation
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Self-Care Dialysis
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Assisted Dialysis
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in the Pediatric Population
Core Curriculum: Chronic Kidney Disease - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 2007
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Updated Guideline: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care - Full-text from the National Guideline Clearinghouse. - December 2014

Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance (pdf) - article from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - September 10, 2004
Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease - recommendations from the American College of Physicians (October 2013)
Risk Factors for CKD from the Life Options web site
10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease from the Life Options web site
Frequently Asked Questions about CKD from the Life Options web site
Learn the Six Warning Signs of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disease from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
 
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  BEST CLINICAL PRACTICES

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF)
Guidelines for Managing Kidney Disease from the Canadian Medical Association
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Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines from Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - April 2016

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD5) - Free, full-text review article from Pediatric Nephrology. - September 2013

Testing for Chronic Kidney Disease: A Position Statement From the National Kidney Foundation - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - August 2007

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, full-text, Online First article from Pediatric Nephrology. - October 2012

Healthy People 2020 - National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines for managing Chronic Kidney Disease
Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral - from the Canadian Medical Association - 1999
 
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  K/DOQI™ -  Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative

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K/ DOQI Main Page on the National Kidney Foundation web site

 


  KDIGO™ -  Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes ( pronounced "kay de go" )

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) web site

  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)

Kidney Diseases (General) from MEDLINEplus Health Information
chronic kidney disease Continually Updated!
chronic kidney disease AND risk factors Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
 

  PRODUCTS

 
 

  STATISTICS

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Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2019 - Data from the CDC  - March 2019

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Eleven New Indicators of CKD Have Been Added to the Resources on the CDC's CKD Surveillance System Website - April 2018

View all indicators.

The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

Fast Facts on Kidney Disease - Statistics from the National Kidney Foundation

Average Annual Health Care Use and Expenditures for Kidney Disease among Adults 18 and Older, U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population, 2003-2007 - Statistical brief (7-page pdf) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Renal Data Extraction and Referencing (RenDER) System - new online data querying application accessible through the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) - USRDS Presentations & Posters, Researcher's Guide and the 2019 USRDS annual report - from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) web site

2017 National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet - 3-page pdf. - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

US Government Goals: Chronic Kidney Disease Chapter from the Healthy People 2020 Objectives
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Free, Open Access, Online First Articles from Nephron - December 11, 2019

statehealthfacts.org - your source for state health data
 
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  UPCOMING EVENTS

NKF Health Screening Schedule - The National Kidney Foundation's (NKF) Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - scroll down to view multiple screening dates and contact phone numbers.
The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Programs & Events
 
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  RELATED TOPICS

Dialysis Outcomes and Topics from the RenalWEB web site Continually Updated!
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS

E-mail to RenalWEB on the Chronic Kidney Disease Page
 
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