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Last Updated 12/17/17
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Once a patient begins dialysis treatments, there are four main restrictions to their "renal diet":

Fluids, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Phosphorus (P).

Fluids are usually restricted to prevent excessive accumulation of water in the body. Too much water can lead to hypertension (high blood pressure), cardiovascular disease, and other complications such as pulmonary edema (water in the lungs).

Sodium is restricted as it plays major roles in hypertension and thirst. Cutting back on salt is essential in the renal diet.

Potassium is restricted as it may lead to irregular heart function. Patients must become knowledgeable about the foods that have high amounts of potassium.

Phosphorus is restricted because high levels of phosphorus will result in low levels of free calcium in the patient's blood. When the body senses low levels of calcium in the blood, it draws calcium out of the bones, which leads to brittle and fragile bones that can easily break.

Protein may or may not be restricted, depending on remaining renal function and other individual-based factors. Consult with your nephrologist and renal dietitian for guidance on your optimal protein intake.

Warning:  Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  Every patient has unique healthcare concerns and considerations and all these factors must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.


  NEWS & LATEST ARTICLES
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Warning Labels Can Help Reduce Soda Consumption and Obesity, New Study Suggests - Press release from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. - December 14, 2017

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Phosphorus Control by Dietary Restriction May Lead to Malnutrition - Article from Renal & Urology News. - December 13, 2017

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Anti-Stress Compound Reduces Obesity and Diabetes - December 13, 2017

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ASN Partners with VA Center for Innovation on My Kidney Nutrition App Features Challenge - Press release from the American Society of Nephrology. - December 12, 2017

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Children Tolerate Intradialytic Oral Nutrition - Early View Abstract from Journal of Renal Care. - December 12, 2017

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Personalized Blood Sugar Goals Can Save Diabetes Patients Thousands - Press release from the University of Chicago Medical Center. Latest Article abstract and full-text Summary for Patients from Annals of Internal Medicine. - December 11, 2017

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Researchers Say Nutritional Labeling for Sodium Doesn't Work - Press release from the University of Georgia. - December 7, 2017

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Clinical Global Assessment of Nutritional Status As Predictor of Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients - Free, Open Access Article from PLOS ONE. - December 6, 2017

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Impact of Obesity on Modality Longevity, Residual Kidney Function, Peritonitis, and Survival Among Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients - Article in Press abstract from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - December 6, 2017

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Diet Quality of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and the Impact of Nutritional Counseling - Article in Press abstract from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - December 6, 2017

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Articles in Press Abstracts from Journal Of Renal Nutrition - December 5, 2017

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Longitudinal Weight Change During CKD Progression and Its Association With Subsequent Mortality - Article in Press abstract from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - December 4, 2017

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Factors Associated with Calcium Requirements after Parathyroidectomy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients - First Online Abstracs from International Urology and Nephrology. - December 2, 2017

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Find the Phosphates! Examples of Foods with Phosphate Additives - Posting from the KidneyGrub blog. - December 2017

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High and Low Sodium Intakes Are Associated with Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Normal Renal Function and Hypertension - Article in Press Abstract from Kidney International. - November 29, 2017

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60 Percent of U.S. Kids Could Be Obese by Age 35 - Article from HealthDay. - November 29, 2017

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Phosphate-Binder Use in US Dialysis Patients: Prevalence, Costs, Evidence, and Policies - Article in Press abstract from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - November 28, 2017

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Aging and Death-Associated Changes in Serum Albumin Variability over the Course of Chronic Hemodialysis Treatment - Free, Open Access Article from PLOS ONE. - November 27, 2017

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Critical Link Between Obesity and Diabetes Identified - November 27, 2017

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Thanksgiving Overeating Could Spell Kidney Problems - Article from HealthDay. - November 23, 2017

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Metabolites Altered in Chronic Kidney Disease - Press release from University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. - November 22, 2017

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Low-Salt & Heart Healthy Dash Diet As Effective As Drugs for Some Adults with High Blood Pressure - Press release from Johns Hopkins Medicine. - November 22, 2017

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Different Dietary Patterns and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Kidney Transplantation: A Cross-Sectional Study - Article in Press abstract from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - November 21, 2017

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Blood Pressure, Dietary Salt, and Genes: What Happens When the Dots Don't Connect? - Article from HealthNewsReview. - November 21, 2017

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Report: Industry Hid Decades-Old Study Showing Sugar's Unhealthy Effects - Article from HealthDay. - November 21, 2017

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Glycated Albumin versus HbA1c in the Evaluation of Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease - Article in Press abstract and full-text article (30-page PDF) from Kidney International Reports. - November 20, 2017

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Article in Press Abstracts from Journal Of Renal Nutrition - November 20, 2017

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Oral Nutritional Supplementation in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis: a Randomized, Crossover Pilot Study - Early View abstract from Journal of Renal Care. - November 19, 2017

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Salt, Water and a Trip to Mars — Time to Rethink Salt - 13-minute TEDx Talk on YouTube. - September 25, 2017

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  WEB RESOURCES
blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Nutrition
Table of Contents of the latest issue of the Journal of Renal Nutrition with abstracts
blue ball Advance Care Planning: The Dietitian's Role part 1 and part 2 from the Journal of Renal Nutrition
American Society for Parenteral and Enternal Nutrition web site
The American College of Nutrition web site
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American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Nutrition App

American Dietetic Association web site
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CKD Nutrition Management Training Program - The National Kidney Disease Education Program has developed Chronic Kidney Disease Nutrition Management, a series of five training modules that use engaging activities and case studies to prepare registered dietitians (RDs) for counseling patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). - 2012

Council on Renal Nutrition of The National Kidney Foundation web site
Chronic Kidney Disease: Nutrition Basics - Free, Full-text Article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - July 2011
Estimating Lean Body Mass in Hemodialysis Patients - Informative article from Renal and Urology News. - June 8, 2011
blue ball Fluid and Electrolytes - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
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Food Safety for Transplant Recipients - from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

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The Greatest Potassium Lecture Ever — Parts 1, 2 and 3 - Lectures from Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine by Joel Topf, MD via the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - August 2016

blue ball NIDDK Publications On-line from the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC)
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Nutrition Information for Hemodialysis Nurses - 3-page pdf from the EDTNA/ERCA website (Europe).

Online Clinical Calculator for Body Surface Area/Body Mass Index from Division of General Internal Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin web site
Renal Nutrition Resources from NKF - Council on Renal Nutrition
Revised European Best Practice Guidelines for Nutrition (pdf) - guidelines endorsed by the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA)
Weight Management Tips for Patients on Hemodialysis - Free, full-text article from the Journal of Renal Nutrition. - September 2010
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 RENAL DIET RESOURCES
Assessing “Low-Carb” Products from the Journal of Renal Nutrition
Chinese Nutrition Educational Materials for Renal Patients: A 2010 Update - Free, full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - March 2011
DaVita Diet Helper from the DaVita web site
Delicious! - AAKP recipe cookbook
Diet Information from the Kidney Patient's Guide (UK site) web site
"Dining Out With Confidence" Guide from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis from the NIDDK web site
Home-Delivered Meal Options for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - September 2012

Kidney Community Kitchen from the Kidney Foundation of Canada Helps Dialysis Patients with Complex Burden of Diet Planning

Kidney-Friendly Frozen Meal Tips and Suggestions “In A Pinch” full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - September 2012
MagicKitchen.com - offers frozen meals for Renal Diet

Mom's Meals - home meal delivery for many with stage 5 kidney disease

My Food Coach from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Nutrition and Fluids for People on Dialysis from the Kidney School web site
Nutrition for CKD Patients - Resource page from the National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP)
Phosphorous: What is it and Why is it Important? from KidneyTimes™
A Review of Packaged Snack Foods - Free, Full-text Article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - July 2011
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Short How-To Recipe Videos Launch for Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients - from DaVita Kidney Care

Smoothie Recipe Book for Renal and Heart Health by Victoria L Hulett JD (Author), Jennifer L Waybright RN (Contributor)
Spice Up Your Diet from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Vitamin D Basics from the Renal Fellow Network web site


  GENERAL FOOD INFORMATION - NOT RENAL SPECIFIC
Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used by Jean A. T., Ph.D. Pennington, Anna De Planter Bowes, Helen n Church - from amazon.com
Cooking Measures and Conversion Calculator from the FoodWine web site


  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)
fluid restriction and ESRD articles   Continually Updated!
nutrition management and ESRD articles   Continually Updated!
PCR and dialysis (protein catabolic rate)  Continually Updated!
IDPN and dialysis (intradialytic parenteral nutrition) articles  Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
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  K/DOQI™ - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure (pdf) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Children with CKD - 2008 Update  from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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  DISCUSSION FORUM
Renal Diet Questions & Issues Discussion Forum on RenalWEB
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  PRODUCTS
 
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  RENAL DIET COOKBOOKS
Cookbooks for CKD Patients—2009 Update
Cleveland Clinic Foundation Renal Diet Cookbooks

Delicious! 2nd Edition- AAKP recipe cookbook

The Renal Patient's Guide to Good Eating : A Cookbook for Patients by a Patient - by Judith A. Curtis, Thomas Batis (Illustrator) from amazon.com - 1989
Rediscovering Food & Flavours - The KidneyCare Cookbook by Lawrence Keogh (chef and transplant patient)

Spice it up! - Renal recipe web site from Canada. Spice it up! booklets are available in English and French, but they are not for sale. They are distributed by renal dietitians to dialysis patients (free of charge).

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  UPCOMING EVENTS
Listing of local ESRD Network Annual Meetings
Listing of NKF Meetings and Activities
Listing of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Education Conferences and Events
Calendar of American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Meetings and Activities
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  YOUR WORDS
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS
E-mail to RenalWEB on the Patient Nutrition Resources Page
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