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Last Updated 03/12/17
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Once a patient begins dialysis treatments, there are four main restrictions to their "renal diet":

Fluids, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Phosphorus (P).

Fluids are usually restricted to prevent excessive accumulation of water in the body. Too much water can lead to hypertension (high blood pressure), cardiovascular disease, and other complications such as pulmonary edema (water in the lungs).

Sodium is restricted as it plays major roles in hypertension and thirst. Cutting back on salt is essential in the renal diet.

Potassium is restricted as it may lead to irregular heart function. Patients must become knowledgeable about the foods that have high amounts of potassium.

Phosphorus is restricted because high levels of phosphorus will result in low levels of free calcium in the patient's blood. When the body senses low levels of calcium in the blood, it draws calcium out of the bones, which leads to brittle and fragile bones that can easily break.

Protein may or may not be restricted, depending on remaining renal function and other individual-based factors. Consult with your nephrologist and renal dietitian for guidance on your optimal protein intake.

Warning:  Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  Every patient has unique healthcare concerns and considerations and all these factors must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.


  NEWS & LATEST ARTICLES
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Free, Full-Text Articles from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases - March 2017

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The DASH Diet, 20 Years Later - Free, full-text, New Online viewpoint article from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - March 9, 2017

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Sodium Intake High, Rising among People with High Blood Pressure - Press Release from the American College of Cardiology. - March 8, 2017

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Comparison of the Availability and Cost of Foods Compatible With a Renal Diet Versus an Unrestricted Diet Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey - Article in Press abstract from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - March 7, 2017

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High Number of Deaths from Heart Disease, Stroke and Diabetes Linked to Diet - Press release from NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Article from HealthDay. - March 7, 2017

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Hypophosphatemia: Nutritional Status, Body Composition, and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients - First Online abstract from International Urology and Nephrology. - March 6, 2017

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Disorders of Serum Omega-3 Fatty Acid Composition in Dialyzed Patients, and Their Associations with Fat Mass - Issue in Progress, Open Access article from Renal Failure. - March 6, 2017

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Exercise Beats Weight Loss at Helping Seniors' Hearts - March 1, 2017

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Triceps Skinfold Thickness Is Associated With Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients - Article included in Free February 2017 Issue of Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis. - February 2017

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Current Uses of Dietary Therapy for Patients with Far-Advanced CKD - CJASN Express Abstract. - February 2017

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Higher Dietary Potassium to Sodium Ratio Can Lower CVD Risk - February 28, 2017

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Long-term Trends in the Prevalence of Obesity in the United States - Data from the CDC's Chronic Kidney Disease Surveillance Project. - February 28, 2017

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Nutritional Issues with Incremental Dialysis: The Role of Low-Protein Diets - Early View abstract from Seminars in Dialysis. - February 27, 2017

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Inactivity, Excess Weight Linked to Hard to Treat Heart Failures - Press release from UT Southwestern Medical Center. Article from HealthDay. - February 27, 2017

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Beyond Sodium, Phosphate and Potassium: Potential Dietary Interventions in Kidney Disease- Early View Abstract from Seminars in Dialysis. - February 26, 2017

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In Mexico, Evidence Of Sustained Consumer Response Two Years After Implementing A Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax - Free, full-text article from Health Affairs. - February 22, 2017

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Raising Dietary Potassium to Sodium Ratio Helps Reduce Heart, Kidney Disease - February 21, 2017

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The Scientific Basis of Guideline Recommendations on Sugar Intake: A Systematic Review - Free, Full-Text Article from Annals of Internal Medicine. - February 21, 2017

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Novel Paradigms of Salt and Hypertension- JASN Express Abstract. - February 20, 2017

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Effect of Magnesium Oxide Supplementation on Nocturnal Leg Cramps — A Randomized Clinical Trial - New Online abstract from JAMA Internal Medicine. - February 20, 2017

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How Does My Diet Affect My Treatment? - Posting from the KidneyViews blog. - February 19, 2017

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Impact of the Type of Dialysis Membranes on the Circulating Concentration of Markers of Vitamin D Metabolism - Advance Online abstract from the International Journal of Artificial Organs. - February 18, 2017

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Free, Open Access Articles from PLOS ONE - February 16, 2017

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Dietary Sources of Energy and Nutrient Intake among Children and Adolescents with Chronic Kidney Disease - First Online abstract from Pediatric Nephrology. - February 16, 2017

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Articles in Press Abstracts from Journal Of Renal Nutrition - February 16, 2017

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Limiting Salt Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Patients with Kidney Disease - February 16, 2017

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Vitamin D Pills 'Could Stop Colds or Flu' - Article from the BBC. Full-text article from The BMJ. - February 16, 2017

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Food Insecurity, CKD, and Subsequent ESRD in US Adults - Articles in Press Abstract from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases. - February 15, 2017

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Vitamin D Deficiency Is Significantly Associated with Depression in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, Open Access Article from PLOS ONE. - February 14, 2017

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Sugar, Salt, and Fat Taxes Could Save Billions in Health Care Costs - Press release and article from PLOS Medicine. - February 14, 2017

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Vitamin K Antagonist Therapy Is a Risk Factor for Ulcer Development and Death Among Dialyzed Patients - Early View Abstract from Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis. - February 14, 2017

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Association of Serum Triglyceride to HDL Cholesterol Ratio with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Incident Hemodialysis Patients - CJASN Express abstract. - February 13, 2017

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Researchers Find Clues to Why Diet with Olive Oil Is Tied Lower Heart Disease Risk - February 13, 2017

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The Role of Ionized Calcium and Magnesium in Regional Citrate Anticoagulation and Its Impact on Inflammatory Parameters - Advance Online Abstract from the International Journal of Artificial Organs. - February 11, 2017

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Free, Full-Text Articles from Journal Of Renal Nutrition - January 4, 2017

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  WEB RESOURCES
blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Nutrition
Table of Contents of the latest issue of the Journal of Renal Nutrition with abstracts
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American Society for Parenteral and Enternal Nutrition web site
The American College of Nutrition web site
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American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Nutrition App

American Dietetic Association web site
blue ball AAKP Nutrition Coundter: A Reference for the Kidney Patient from the American Association of Kidney Patients web site

CKD Nutrition Management Training Program - The National Kidney Disease Education Program has developed Chronic Kidney Disease Nutrition Management, a series of five training modules that use engaging activities and case studies to prepare registered dietitians (RDs) for counseling patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). - 2012

Council on Renal Nutrition of The National Kidney Foundation web site
Chronic Kidney Disease: Nutrition Basics - Free, Full-text Article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - July 2011
Estimating Lean Body Mass in Hemodialysis Patients - Informative article from Renal and Urology News. - June 8, 2011
blue ball Fluid and Electrolytes - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
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Food Safety for Transplant Recipients - from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

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The Greatest Potassium Lecture Ever — Parts 1, 2 and 3 - Lectures from Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine by Joel Topf, MD via the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - August 2016

Kidney Diet Info at Your Fingertips - KidneyTalk podcast from Renal Support Network.

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Nutrition Information for Hemodialysis Nurses - 3-page pdf from the EDTNA/ERCA website (Europe).

Online Clinical Calculator for Body Surface Area/Body Mass Index from Division of General Internal Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin web site
Renal Nutrition Resources from NKF - Council on Renal Nutrition
Revised European Best Practice Guidelines for Nutrition (pdf) - guidelines endorsed by the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA)
Weight Management Tips for Patients on Hemodialysis - Free, full-text article from the Journal of Renal Nutrition. - September 2010
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 RENAL DIET RESOURCES
Assessing “Low-Carb” Products from the Journal of Renal Nutrition
Chinese Nutrition Educational Materials for Renal Patients: A 2010 Update - Free, full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - March 2011
DaVita Diet Helper from the DaVita web site
Delicious! - AAKP recipe cookbook
Diet Information from the Kidney Patient's Guide (UK site) web site
"Dining Out With Confidence" Guide from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis from the NIDDK web site
Home-Delivered Meal Options for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - September 2012

Kidney Community Kitchen from the Kidney Foundation of Canada Helps Dialysis Patients with Complex Burden of Diet Planning

Kidney-Friendly Frozen Meal Tips and Suggestions “In A Pinch” full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - September 2012
MagicKitchen.com - offers frozen meals for Renal Diet

Mom's Meals - home meal delivery for many with stage 5 kidney disease

My Food Coach from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Nutrition and Fluids for People on Dialysis from the Kidney School web site
Nutrition for CKD Patients - Resource page from the National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP)
Phosphorous: What is it and Why is it Important? from KidneyTimes™
A Review of Packaged Snack Foods - Free, Full-text Article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - July 2011
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Short How-To Recipe Videos Launch for Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients - from DaVita Kidney Care

Smoothie Recipe Book for Renal and Heart Health by Victoria L Hulett JD (Author), Jennifer L Waybright RN (Contributor)
Spice Up Your Diet from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Vitamin D Basics from the Renal Fellow Network web site


  GENERAL FOOD INFORMATION - NOT RENAL SPECIFIC
Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used by Jean A. T., Ph.D. Pennington, Anna De Planter Bowes, Helen n Church - from amazon.com
Cooking Measures and Conversion Calculator from the FoodWine web site


  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)
fluid restriction and ESRD articles   Continually Updated!
nutrition management and ESRD articles   Continually Updated!
PCR and dialysis (protein catabolic rate)  Continually Updated!
IDPN and dialysis (intradialytic parenteral nutrition) articles  Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
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  K/DOQI™ - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure (pdf) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Children with CKD - 2008 Update  from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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  DISCUSSION FORUM
Renal Diet Questions & Issues Discussion Forum on RenalWEB
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  PRODUCTS
 
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  RENAL DIET COOKBOOKS
Cookbooks for CKD Patients—2009 Update
Cleveland Clinic Foundation Renal Diet Cookbooks

Delicious! 2nd Edition- AAKP recipe cookbook

The Renal Patient's Guide to Good Eating : A Cookbook for Patients by a Patient - by Judith A. Curtis, Thomas Batis (Illustrator) from amazon.com - 1989
Rediscovering Food & Flavours - The KidneyCare Cookbook by Lawrence Keogh (chef and transplant patient)

Spice it up! - Renal recipe web site from Canada. Spice it up! booklets are available in English and French, but they are not for sale. They are distributed by renal dietitians to dialysis patients (free of charge).

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  UPCOMING EVENTS
Listing of local ESRD Network Annual Meetings
Listing of NKF Meetings and Activities
Listing of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Education Conferences and Events
Calendar of American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Meetings and Activities
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  YOUR WORDS
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS
E-mail to RenalWEB on the Patient Nutrition Resources Page
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