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Last Updated 06/18/17
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Once a patient begins dialysis treatments, there are four main restrictions to their "renal diet":

Fluids, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Phosphorus (P).

Fluids are usually restricted to prevent excessive accumulation of water in the body. Too much water can lead to hypertension (high blood pressure), cardiovascular disease, and other complications such as pulmonary edema (water in the lungs).

Sodium is restricted as it plays major roles in hypertension and thirst. Cutting back on salt is essential in the renal diet.

Potassium is restricted as it may lead to irregular heart function. Patients must become knowledgeable about the foods that have high amounts of potassium.

Phosphorus is restricted because high levels of phosphorus will result in low levels of free calcium in the patient's blood. When the body senses low levels of calcium in the blood, it draws calcium out of the bones, which leads to brittle and fragile bones that can easily break.

Protein may or may not be restricted, depending on remaining renal function and other individual-based factors. Consult with your nephrologist and renal dietitian for guidance on your optimal protein intake.

Warning:  Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  Every patient has unique healthcare concerns and considerations and all these factors must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.


  NEWS & LATEST ARTICLES
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Articles in Press Abstracts from Journal of Renal Nutrition - June 13, 2017

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Clinical Aspects of Magnesium Physiology in Patients on Dialysis - Early View Abstract from Seminars In Dialysis. - June 13, 2017

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FDA Puts Brakes on Rule Requiring New 'Nutrition Facts' Label - Article from HealthDay. - June 13, 2017

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New Study Finds More Than 2 Billion People Overweight or Obese - Press release from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Free, full-text, Online First articles from The New England Journal of Medicine. - June 12, 2017

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Article in Press Abstracts from Journal Of Renal Nutrition - June 8, 2017

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Sodium Reduction in US Households' Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases, 2000 to 2014 - Free, full-text, New Online article and editorial from JAMA Internal Medicine. - June 5, 2017

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Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Vascular Stiffness in CKD - CJASN Express Abstract. - May 2017

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Assessment of Physical Activity, Capacity and Nutritional Status in Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patients - Free, Open Access Article from BMC Nephrology. - May 30, 2017

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Clinical Practice Recommendations for Native Vitamin D Therapy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 2-5 and on Dialysis - Advance Article abstract from NDT. - May 26, 2017

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Long-Term Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of PA21 (Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide) in Japanese Hemodialysis Patients With Hyperphosphatemia: An Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase III Study - Free, full-text, Article in Press from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - May 24, 2017

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The Medical Minute: Go Easy on the Salt - May 24, 2017

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Biomarkers Associated with Mortality in Patients Undergoing Dialysis - Early View abstract from Journal of Renal Care. - May 23, 2017

"The only variable independently associated with mortality was low albumin levels."

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Estimated Dietary Sodium Intake in Hemodialysis Patients Using Food Frequency Questionnaires - Free, Issue-in-Progress, Open Access article from Clinical Kidney Journal. - May 22, 2017

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Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mortality Associated with Serum Potassium in a Large Hemodialysis Cohort - Issue-in-Progress abstract from American Journal of Nephrology. - May 20, 2017

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Personal Attitudes Toward Weight in Overweight and Obese US Hemodialysis Patient - Article in Press abstract from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - May 19, 2017

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Is Everything We Know about Sodium Physiology Wrong? - Resources from the Nephrology Journal Club (#NephJC). - May 1, 2017

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  WEB RESOURCES
blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Nutrition
Table of Contents of the latest issue of the Journal of Renal Nutrition with abstracts
blue ball Advance Care Planning: The Dietitian's Role part 1 and part 2 from the Journal of Renal Nutrition
American Society for Parenteral and Enternal Nutrition web site
The American College of Nutrition web site
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American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Nutrition App

American Dietetic Association web site
blue ball AAKP Nutrition Coundter: A Reference for the Kidney Patient from the American Association of Kidney Patients web site

CKD Nutrition Management Training Program - The National Kidney Disease Education Program has developed Chronic Kidney Disease Nutrition Management, a series of five training modules that use engaging activities and case studies to prepare registered dietitians (RDs) for counseling patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). - 2012

Council on Renal Nutrition of The National Kidney Foundation web site
Chronic Kidney Disease: Nutrition Basics - Free, Full-text Article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - July 2011
Estimating Lean Body Mass in Hemodialysis Patients - Informative article from Renal and Urology News. - June 8, 2011
blue ball Fluid and Electrolytes - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
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Food Safety for Transplant Recipients - from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

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The Greatest Potassium Lecture Ever — Parts 1, 2 and 3 - Lectures from Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine by Joel Topf, MD via the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - August 2016

Kidney Diet Info at Your Fingertips - KidneyTalk podcast from Renal Support Network.

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Nutrition Information for Hemodialysis Nurses - 3-page pdf from the EDTNA/ERCA website (Europe).

Online Clinical Calculator for Body Surface Area/Body Mass Index from Division of General Internal Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin web site
Renal Nutrition Resources from NKF - Council on Renal Nutrition
Revised European Best Practice Guidelines for Nutrition (pdf) - guidelines endorsed by the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA)
Weight Management Tips for Patients on Hemodialysis - Free, full-text article from the Journal of Renal Nutrition. - September 2010
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 RENAL DIET RESOURCES
Assessing “Low-Carb” Products from the Journal of Renal Nutrition
Chinese Nutrition Educational Materials for Renal Patients: A 2010 Update - Free, full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - March 2011
DaVita Diet Helper from the DaVita web site
Delicious! - AAKP recipe cookbook
Diet Information from the Kidney Patient's Guide (UK site) web site
"Dining Out With Confidence" Guide from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis from the NIDDK web site
Home-Delivered Meal Options for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - September 2012

Kidney Community Kitchen from the Kidney Foundation of Canada Helps Dialysis Patients with Complex Burden of Diet Planning

Kidney-Friendly Frozen Meal Tips and Suggestions “In A Pinch” full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - September 2012
MagicKitchen.com - offers frozen meals for Renal Diet

Mom's Meals - home meal delivery for many with stage 5 kidney disease

My Food Coach from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Nutrition and Fluids for People on Dialysis from the Kidney School web site
Nutrition for CKD Patients - Resource page from the National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP)
Phosphorous: What is it and Why is it Important? from KidneyTimes™
A Review of Packaged Snack Foods - Free, Full-text Article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - July 2011
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Short How-To Recipe Videos Launch for Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients - from DaVita Kidney Care

Smoothie Recipe Book for Renal and Heart Health by Victoria L Hulett JD (Author), Jennifer L Waybright RN (Contributor)
Spice Up Your Diet from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Vitamin D Basics from the Renal Fellow Network web site


  GENERAL FOOD INFORMATION - NOT RENAL SPECIFIC
Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used by Jean A. T., Ph.D. Pennington, Anna De Planter Bowes, Helen n Church - from amazon.com
Cooking Measures and Conversion Calculator from the FoodWine web site


  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)
fluid restriction and ESRD articles   Continually Updated!
nutrition management and ESRD articles   Continually Updated!
PCR and dialysis (protein catabolic rate)  Continually Updated!
IDPN and dialysis (intradialytic parenteral nutrition) articles  Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
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  K/DOQI™ - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure (pdf) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Children with CKD - 2008 Update  from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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  DISCUSSION FORUM
Renal Diet Questions & Issues Discussion Forum on RenalWEB
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  PRODUCTS
 
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  RENAL DIET COOKBOOKS
Cookbooks for CKD Patients—2009 Update
Cleveland Clinic Foundation Renal Diet Cookbooks

Delicious! 2nd Edition- AAKP recipe cookbook

The Renal Patient's Guide to Good Eating : A Cookbook for Patients by a Patient - by Judith A. Curtis, Thomas Batis (Illustrator) from amazon.com - 1989
Rediscovering Food & Flavours - The KidneyCare Cookbook by Lawrence Keogh (chef and transplant patient)

Spice it up! - Renal recipe web site from Canada. Spice it up! booklets are available in English and French, but they are not for sale. They are distributed by renal dietitians to dialysis patients (free of charge).

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  UPCOMING EVENTS
Listing of local ESRD Network Annual Meetings
Listing of NKF Meetings and Activities
Listing of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Education Conferences and Events
Calendar of American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Meetings and Activities
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  YOUR WORDS
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS
E-mail to RenalWEB on the Patient Nutrition Resources Page
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