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Last Updated 04/17/18
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Once a patient begins dialysis treatments, there are four main restrictions to their "renal diet":

Fluids, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Phosphorus (P).

Fluids are usually restricted to prevent excessive accumulation of water in the body. Too much water can lead to hypertension (high blood pressure), cardiovascular disease, and other complications such as pulmonary edema (water in the lungs).

Sodium is restricted as it plays major roles in hypertension and thirst. Cutting back on salt is essential in the renal diet.

Potassium is restricted as it may lead to irregular heart function. Patients must become knowledgeable about the foods that have high amounts of potassium.

Phosphorus is restricted because high levels of phosphorus will result in low levels of free calcium in the patient's blood. When the body senses low levels of calcium in the blood, it draws calcium out of the bones, which leads to brittle and fragile bones that can easily break.

Protein may or may not be restricted, depending on remaining renal function and other individual-based factors. Consult with your nephrologist and renal dietitian for guidance on your optimal protein intake.

Warning:  Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  Every patient has unique healthcare concerns and considerations and all these factors must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.


  NEWS & LATEST ARTICLES
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Hypercalcemia: Etiology and Management - Free, Full-Text Article from NDT. - April 2018

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Lowering LDL Cholesterol Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Independently of Presence of Inflammation - Free, Open Access Article from Kidney International. - April 2018

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Nutritional Status and Survival of Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Receiving Lanthanum Carbonate - Advance Article from NDT. - April 16, 2018

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An Aspirational Diet for Dialysis Patients: Evidence and Theory - Early View abstract from Seminars in Dialysis. - April 13, 2018

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Combined Contribution of Reduced Functional Mobility, Muscle Weakness, and Low Serum Albumin in Prediction of All-Cause Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study - Article in Press abstract from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - April 13, 2018

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Philly's Soda Tax Is Working, Study Finds - Article from HealthDay. - April 12, 2018

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Certain Iron Supplements May Influence the Development of Colon Cancer - Press release from Chalmers University of Technology. - April 12, 2018

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Protein Restriction Effective in Delaying Need for Dialysis, Comprehensive Study Shows - Press Release from the National Kidney Foundation Spring Clinical Meetings. - April 11, 2018

Tweets @NKFCLINICALS and #NKFClinicals.

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Study Highlights The Health and Economic Benefits of a US Salt Reduction Strategy - Press release from University of Liverpool. Press release and full-text article from PLOS Medicine. - April 10, 2018

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Very Low-Protein Diet Can Delay the Need for Dialysis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) - (2-page pdf) Press release from ERA-EDTA. Full-text article from Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. - April 9, 2018

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Is Nutrition Specific Quality of Life Associated With Nutritional Status? - Article in Press abstract from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - April 6, 2018

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CDC Alerts Clinicians to Bleeding Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoids - News brief from the American Hospital Association. Outbreak Alert from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. - April 6, 2018

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Older Americans Are Hooked On Vitamins Despite Scarce Evidence They Work - Article from Kaiser Health News. - April 4, 2018

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Nephrotoxicity and Chinese Herbal Medicine - CJASN Express abstract. - April 3, 2018

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Caffeine May Prevent Acute Kidney Injury in Preterm Neonates - Article from Renal & Urology News. - April 2, 2018

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Structural Equation Modeling to Explore Patient to Staff Ratios as an Explanatory Factor for Variation in Dialysis Facility Outcomes - Article in Press abstract from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - March 31, 2018

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Prevention and Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia in Chronic Kidney Disease - Article in Press abstract from Kidney International. - March 24, 2018

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Intensive Phosphorus-Lowering May Reduce PTH - Article from Renal & Urology News. - March 23, 2018

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Study: 40% of U.S. Adults Obese in 2015-16 - News brief from the American Hospital Association. Free, full-text, New Online research letter from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - March 23, 2018

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Freezing Hunger Signaling Nerve May Help Ignite Weight Loss - Press release from Society of Interventional Radiology. - March 21, 2018

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Glycated Albumin and Blood Sugar Control in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease - Advance Article editorial extract from NDT. - March 21, 2018

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Sugary Sodas Linked Again to Increased Heart Risks - Article from HealthDay. - March 21, 2018

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Grilling and Other High-Temperature Cooking May Raise Risk of High Blood Pressure - Press release from the American Heart Association. - March 21, 2018

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Coffee Consumption and Incident Kidney Disease: Results From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Article in Press abstract from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - March 20, 2018

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ENDO: Big Breakfast May Help in Diabetics - (Registration required, but free.) Article from MedPage Today. - March 19, 2018

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Can You Be Obese But Heart-Healthy? Study Says No - Article from HealthDay. - March 16, 2018

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Hyponatremia Region - NephMadness Brackets. - March 15, 2018

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Study: Americans Getting More Exercise but Increasingly Obese - Article from The Hill. - March 15, 2018

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Impact of pH and Phosphate Concentration on the Phosphate Binding Capacity of Five Contemporary Binders - Article from European Nephrology Portal. - March 14, 2018

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Effect of High Amylose Resistant Starch (HAM-RS2) Supplementation on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Hemodialysis Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial - Early View abstract from Hemodialysis International. - March 13, 2018

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Does Ramadan Fasting Affect Hydration Status and Kidney Function in CKD Patients? - Issue-in-Progress abstract from Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. - March 8, 2018

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For Diabetics, a High-Fiber Diet Feeds Gut Microbes, Lowering Blood Sugar - Article from STAT. - March 8, 2018

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Practical Guidelines for Eating during Hemodialysis - Article from the European Nephrology Portal. Free, full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - March 6, 2018

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Novel Equations for Estimating Lean Body Mass in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - November 15, 2017

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  WEB RESOURCES
blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Nutrition
Table of Contents of the latest issue of the Journal of Renal Nutrition with abstracts
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American Society for Parenteral and Enternal Nutrition web site
The American College of Nutrition web site
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American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Nutrition App

American Dietetic Association web site
blue ball AAKP Nutrition Coundter: A Reference for the Kidney Patient from the American Association of Kidney Patients web site

CKD Nutrition Management Training Program - The National Kidney Disease Education Program has developed Chronic Kidney Disease Nutrition Management, a series of five training modules that use engaging activities and case studies to prepare registered dietitians (RDs) for counseling patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). - 2012

Council on Renal Nutrition of The National Kidney Foundation web site
Chronic Kidney Disease: Nutrition Basics - Free, Full-text Article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - July 2011
Estimating Lean Body Mass in Hemodialysis Patients - Informative article from Renal and Urology News. - June 8, 2011
blue ball Fluid and Electrolytes - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
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Food Safety for Transplant Recipients - from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

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The Greatest Potassium Lecture Ever — Parts 1, 2 and 3 - Lectures from Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine by Joel Topf, MD via the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - August 2016

Online Clinical Calculator for Body Surface Area/Body Mass Index from Division of General Internal Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin web site
Renal Nutrition Resources from NKF - Council on Renal Nutrition
Revised European Best Practice Guidelines for Nutrition (pdf) - guidelines endorsed by the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA)
Weight Management Tips for Patients on Hemodialysis - Free, full-text article from the Journal of Renal Nutrition. - September 2010
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 RENAL DIET RESOURCES
Assessing “Low-Carb” Products from the Journal of Renal Nutrition
Chinese Nutrition Educational Materials for Renal Patients: A 2010 Update - Free, full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - March 2011
DaVita Diet Helper from the DaVita web site
Delicious! - AAKP recipe cookbook
Diet Information from the Kidney Patient's Guide (UK site) web site
"Dining Out With Confidence" Guide from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis from the NIDDK web site
Home-Delivered Meal Options for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - September 2012

Kidney Community Kitchen from the Kidney Foundation of Canada Helps Dialysis Patients with Complex Burden of Diet Planning

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Kidney Cooking — Holiday Edition - Cookbook from DCI available for download.

Kidney-Friendly Frozen Meal Tips and Suggestions “In A Pinch” full-text article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - September 2012
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Kidney Smart Food Shopping - YouTube video (1 of 3) from Dialysis Clinics Inc.

MagicKitchen.com - offers frozen meals for Renal Diet

Mom's Meals - home meal delivery for many with stage 5 kidney disease

My Food Coach from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Nutrition and Fluids for People on Dialysis from the Kidney School web site
Nutrition for CKD Patients - Resource page from the National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP)
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Patient-Friendly Renal Nutrition Guide from the Alport Syndrome Foundation - (9-page pdf) Alport Syndrome Foundation web site.

Phosphorous: What is it and Why is it Important? from KidneyTimes™
A Review of Packaged Snack Foods - Free, Full-text Article from Journal of Renal Nutrition - July 2011
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Short How-To Recipe Videos Launch for Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients - from DaVita Kidney Care

Smoothie Recipe Book for Renal and Heart Health by Victoria L Hulett JD (Author), Jennifer L Waybright RN (Contributor)
Spice Up Your Diet from the National Kidney Foundation web site
Vitamin D Basics from the Renal Fellow Network web site


  GENERAL FOOD INFORMATION - NOT RENAL SPECIFIC
Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used by Jean A. T., Ph.D. Pennington, Anna De Planter Bowes, Helen n Church - from amazon.com
Cooking Measures and Conversion Calculator from the FoodWine web site


  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)
fluid restriction and ESRD articles   Continually Updated!
nutrition management and ESRD articles   Continually Updated!
PCR and dialysis (protein catabolic rate)  Continually Updated!
IDPN and dialysis (intradialytic parenteral nutrition) articles  Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
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  K/DOQI™ - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure (pdf) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Children with CKD - 2008 Update  from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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  DISCUSSION FORUM
Renal Diet Questions & Issues Discussion Forum on RenalWEB
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  PRODUCTS
 
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  RENAL DIET COOKBOOKS
Cookbooks for CKD Patients—2009 Update
Cleveland Clinic Foundation Renal Diet Cookbooks

Delicious! 2nd Edition- AAKP recipe cookbook

The Renal Patient's Guide to Good Eating : A Cookbook for Patients by a Patient - by Judith A. Curtis, Thomas Batis (Illustrator) from amazon.com - 1989
Rediscovering Food & Flavours - The KidneyCare Cookbook by Lawrence Keogh (chef and transplant patient)

Spice it up! - Renal recipe web site from Canada. Spice it up! booklets are available in English and French, but they are not for sale. They are distributed by renal dietitians to dialysis patients (free of charge).

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  UPCOMING EVENTS
Listing of local ESRD Network Annual Meetings
Listing of NKF Meetings and Activities
Listing of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Education Conferences and Events
Calendar of American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Meetings and Activities
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  YOUR WORDS
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS
E-mail to RenalWEB on the Patient Nutrition Resources Page
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