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Last Updated 10/21/18
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Dialysis technicians and technologists spend more time with dialysis patients than any other health care professionals.  There are more dialysis technicians/technologists than nephrology nurses and nephrologists combined.

In most dialysis facilities, dialysis technicians perform dialysis treatments under the supervision of a registered nurse. Duties include pretreatment assessment, cannulation, initiation of treatment, treatment monitoring, discontinuation of treatment, and post-treatment assessment.

Dialysis technologists specialize in the technical operations of a dialysis facility. Duties include dialysis equipment maintenance and repair, water treatment monitoring, dialyzer reprocessing, and facility safety issues. See the Renal Career Fact Sheet for Dialysis Technologists from the National Kidney Foundation.

This list of educational and informational resources will be continually expanded. Please notify RenalWEB of your suggestions and ideas for this page.

Warning:  Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  Every patient has unique healthcare concerns and considerations and all these factors must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.


  NEWS
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Missed Hemodialysis Treatments: A Modifiable But Unequal Burden in the World - Free, Full-Text Article from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases. - November 2018

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Free Supplemental Issue of NDT on Expanded Hemodialysis - 9 full-text articles. - October 2018

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Convective Dialysis Reduces Mortality Risk: Results From a Large Observational, Population-Based Analysis - Free, Full-Text Article from Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis. - October 2018

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Perspectives in Renal Replacement Therapy: Hemodialysis - Free, Full-Text, Accepted Articles from Nephrology. - October 2018

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Taking Steps toward a Wearable Artificial Kidney - Press release from the American Chemical Society. - October 17, 2018

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Early Mortality among Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis Patients Who Transitioned with an Optimal Outpatient Start - Article in Press abstract and full-text article (28-page PDF) from Kidney International Reports. - October 16, 2018

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Differences in Amino Acid Loss Between High-Efficiency Hemodialysis and Postdilution and Predilution Hemodiafiltration Using High Convection Volume Exchange—A New Metabolic Scenario? A Pilot Study - Free, full-text, Article in Press from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - October 16, 2018

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Accepted Articles Abstracts from Nephrology - October 16, 2018

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The Impact of CKD on Cognition: An Inside and Outside View - Posting from the KidneyViews blog. - October 11, 2018
Excerpt of comment by Dr. John Agar:
"Allowing TIME for slow diffusion is critical, yet we deploy dialysis by ‘blitzkreig’, rather than by ‘assimilation’.
"Using a smaller surface area dialyser for our nocturnals also seems to work well ... and we do that, pretty much routinely.
"So, Henning, there is your dialysis fog, in a nutshell.
"Have we researched this? ... No!
"Do we understand this any better than in the days when disequilibration was common? ... No!
"Am I embarrassed, and ashamed of myself and my colleagues on your behalf? ... Yes!"
Editor's note: Until renal rehabilitation is recognized — and finally established — as an essential part of dialysis care, the vast majority of patients will continue to live in the "fog."
Why has this field of medicine seen virtually no improvements in the outcomes that matter to the patients?

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Donate Reprocessed Hemodialyzers: Easy Water for Everyone - (4-page pdf) Easy Water for Everyone web site. 3-minute YouTube video narrated by Dr. Nathan Levin. - 2018

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Eliminating the Need for Routine Monthly Postdialysis Serum Urea Nitrogen Measurement: a Method for Monitoring Kt/V and Normalized Protein Catabolic Rate Using Conductivity Determined Dialyzer Clearance - Early View abstract from Seminars In Dialysis. - October 11, 2018

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A Retrospective Study on Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agent Dose Reducing Potential of an Anti-Platelet Activation Membrane Dialyzer in Hemodialysis Patients - Early View abstract from Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis. - October 11, 2018

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Intradialytic Kinetics of Middle Molecules during Hemodialysis and Hemodiafiltration - Advance Article abstract from NDT. - October 10, 2018

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Vancomycin Hemodialysis: Clearance Differences between High-Flux Hemodialysis and On-Line Hemodiafiltration - Accepted Article abstract from Artificial Organs. - October 10, 2018

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Fresenius Medical Care Supports Access to Hemodiafiltration for UK Dialysis Patients - Press release. - October 8, 2018

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Choosing a Dialyzer: What Clinicians Need to Know - Early View abstract from Hemodialysis International. - October 8, 2018

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Anti-Hypertensive Agents and Removal by Hemodialysis - Posting from the NephronPower blog. - October 8, 2018

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Early View Abstracts from Hemodialysis International - October 5, 2018

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High Cut-Off Membrane for in-vivo Dialysis of Free Plasma Hemoglobin in a Patient with Massive Hemolysis - Free, Open Access Article from BMC Nephrology. - October 4, 2018

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Clinical Presentation at Initiation of Maintenance Dialysis and Subsequent Survival: a Retrospective Cohort Study - Early View abstract from Hemodialysis International. - October 4, 2018

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Predicting 3-Year Survival in Patients Receiving Maintenance Dialysis: An External Validation of iChoose Kidney in Ontario, Canada - Free, Open Access article from Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease. - October 4, 2018

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Online First Abstracts from the International Journal of Artificial Organs - October 2, 2018

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Biochemical Evidence of Cell Starvation in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients - Free, Open Access Article from PLOS ONE. - September 27, 2018

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Zero Diffusive Sodium Balance in Hemodialysis Provided by an Algorithm-Based Electrolyte Balancing Controller: A Proof of Principle Clinical Study - Free, full-text, Early View article from Artificial Organs. - September 27, 2018

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Early View Abstracts from Hemodialysis International - September 25, 2018

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Biocompatibility of Polysulfone Hemodialysis Membranes and Its Mechanisms: Involvement of Fibrinogen and Its Integrin Receptors in Activation of Platelets and Neutrophils - Free, Open Access, Early View article from Artificial Organs. - September 21, 2018

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Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration Yields Better Renal Outcomes Than Intermittent Hemodialysis among Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage Patients with Acute Kidney Injury: a Nationwide Population-based Retrospective Study in Taiwan - Free, Open Access article from PLOS ONE. - September 20, 2018

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Recovery Time after Hemodialysis Is Inversely Associated with the Ultrafiltration Rate - Free, Online First Article from Blood Purification. - September 19, 2018

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FDA Recall Notices for Fresenius 2008T Hemodialysis System - September 18, 2018

Reason for Recall: In the hemodialysis machine during the cleaning/disinfection program, when there is a power failure or interruption, the dialysis program button should be greyed out when the machine is powered up and a mandatory rinse should be required. However, if a power failure or interruption occurs during the cleaning/disinfection program with the auto-start feature enabled, the machine enters the dialysis program even though the dialysis program button is disabled and the mandatory rinse has not been performed. As a result, disinfecting chemical may not be completely removed from the machine before starting a treatment and disinfectant could exist in the dialysate delivered to the patient.

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Online First Abstracts from Blood Purification - September 14 - 25, 2018

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Pharmacokinetics of Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate Administered Via Dialysate and Intravenously to Pediatric Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis - Free, Open Access article from Pediatric Nephrology. - July 12, 2018

blue ball Dialysis news stories from Yahoo!  Continually Updated!
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  WEB RESOURCES
blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Dialysis Technology
Latest Issue of Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology (BI&T) Journal - The Official Journal of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
Future Horizons - special publication from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) dedicated to examining the future of medical technology and the healthcare profession
Dictionary of over 70,000 medical, pharmaceutical, biomedical & healthcare acronyms and abbreviations from the MediLexicon web site
National Surveillance System for Health Care Workers (NaSH) (pdf) from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Chemical Reactivity Hazards from the Occupational Safety & Health Administration web site
Chlorine - from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) - September 2006
Eleven Keys to Designing Error-Resistant Medical Device from the Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry web site - May 2002
European Medical Device Technology web site
Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals - (pdf) release from the NIOSH/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - July 2008
blue ball FDA-Cleared Sterilants and High Level Disinfectants with General Claims for Processing Reusable Medical and Dental Devices from the FDA's Medical Devices - March 2015
Healthcare Technology Management Collection, 2014 Update from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) web site
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HIPAA Training Video from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

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Incivility, Bullying, and Workplace Violence - position statement from the American Nurses Association. - July 2015

Inspection of Medical Device Manufacturers - from the U. S. Food and Drug Administration web site - June 2006
Job Safety and Health: It's the Law and Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo ¡Es la Ley! (pdf) from the Occupational Safety & Health Administration web site
NANT Presentations - from the National Association of Nephrology Technicians/Technologists
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) web site
OSHA Unveils New Webpage for Spanish-Speaking Employers and Workers
Promoting Healthcare Workplace Excellence (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) from the Health Care Workforce Policy Advisory Committee Georgia Department of Community Health - spring 2002
Renal Data Extraction and Referencing (RenDER) System - new online data querying application accessible through the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) - USRDS Presentations & Posters, 2016 Researcher's Guide and the 2017 USRDS annual report - from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) web site
blue ball Risk Management - podcast from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) web site
TOXMAP - Environmental Health e-Maps from the U.S. National Library of Medicine web site
blue ball Worker Safety in Hospitals Caring for our Caregivers - from OSHA web site
blue ball Workplace Violence Prevention Course for Nurses - from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
blue ball Workplace Violence Prevention Resources - from the The Joint Commission
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  ORGANIZATIONS
blue ball American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO) web site
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) web site
Canadian Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technologists web site
ECRI web site for healthcare technology assessment
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) web site

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) web site,  Medical Devices ,  Medical Device Reporting (MDR)

Green Dialysis web site
Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Transparency web site
International Health Care Worker Safety Center (also EPINet) web site
International Society for Performance Improvement web site
The National Academies web site (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council)
National Association for Nephrology Technicians/Technologists (NANT) web site
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) web site
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site - NKF Council of Nephrology Nurses and Technicians

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse web site

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) web site - Topics: Bloodborne PathogensNeedlestick Injuries
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  ESSENTIALS AND CLASSICS
A Study Guide for Dialysis Technologists 5th ed. - Book from the National Association for Nephrology Technicians/Technologists (NANT) web site
AAMI Dialysis Standards Collection 2015 edition - This comprehensive dialysis collection includes EVERY CURRENT AAMI HEMODIALYSIS standard and guidance document.

A Practicum for Healthcare Technology Management - 2017 - This textbook is the go to resource for new and seasoned biomedical professionals. It covers everything from The Joint Commission accreditation process and managing medical device safety to human factors engineering and evidence-based medical equipment maintenance management. Based on Les Atles' best-selling "A Practicum for Biomedical Engineering and Technology Management" and written by experts in the profession.

AAMI Medical device software risk management - provides information for performing effective software risk management and should be regarded as a reference for developing safe software systems to be used in medical devices. - from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report web site
Handbook of Dialysis Fifth Edition by John T Daugirdas MD, Peter G Blake MB, FRCPC, FRCPI, Todd S Ing MD
Book: Review of Hemodialysis for Nurses and Dialysis Personnel by Gutch, Corea, and Stoner from amazon.com
ANNA Publications from the American Nephrology Nurses Association web site
NANT Publications from the National Association of Nephrology Technicians/ Technologists web site
Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy from the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) web site
NLM MEDLINE plus Health Information for Kidneys and Urinary System
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  HEMODIALYSIS MACHINES
For Manufacturers and CDRH Reviewers - Guidance for the Content of Premarket Notifications for Hemodialysis Delivery Systems from the FDA's Medical Devices - August 1998/ July 2000
blue ball Quality of dialysis fluid for hemodialysis and related therapies, 2014 - from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
blue ball Guidance for the preparation and quality management of fluids for hemodialysis and related therapies, 2014 - from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
Concentrates for hemodialysis, 2014 - from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
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  WATER TREATMENT
AAMI Dialysis Standards Collection 2015 edition - This comprehensive dialysis collection includes EVERY CURRENT AAMI HEMODIALYSIS standard and guidance document.
2014 Dialysis Water and Dialysate Recommendations: A User Guide - a side-by-side comparison of the CMS regulations and interpretive guidance for the Condition of Water and Dialysate Quality and the section related to water and dialysate from the Condition of Care at Home with the suite of ISO Standards that have been adopted as replacement for ANSI/AAMI RD52:2004 - from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
A Surveyor’s Perspective: Water Quality for Hemodialysis (3-page pdf) from Hemodialysis Horizons
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blue ball Ultrapure Dialysate for hemodialysis, 2011 from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
Water for hemodialysis and related therapies, 2014 from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
blue ball Water testing methodologies, 2014 from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
blue ball Water for hemodialysis and related therapies, 2014 from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water web site
For manufacturers - Guidance for the Content of Premarket Notifications for Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis (pdf) from the FDA's Medical Devices - May 30, 1997
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  REUSE AND REPROCESSING
Sterilants and High Level Disinfectants Cleared by FDA
AAMI Dialysis Standards Collection 2015 edition - This comprehensive dialysis collection includes EVERY CURRENT AAMI HEMODIALYSIS standard and guidance document.
Reprocessing of hemodialyzers, 2008 - (consolidated text of 2002 edition and March 2003 amendment) - This book can be ordered from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) web site
Glutaraldehyde - from the CDC National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Antimicrobial Chemical/Registration Number Indexes from the EPA web site
ReNews. is a newsletter about dialyzer reprocessing and related topics published twice yearly by Minntech Renal Systems. Copies of recent issues are available for download as Acrobat PDF files. (From the Medivators web site)
K/DOQI™ Guideline 5. Hemodialysis Membranes from the American Journal of Kidney Disease
A publication "What you should know about dialyzer reuse" (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat reader) available from the NKF
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  ELECTRONICS
60601-1, 3rd Edition, Medical electrical equipment, Part 1 - Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) web site.
Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures — Scope and Application - Availability from the U.S. Department Of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - 2015
Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC from the FDA's Radiation-Emitting Products
FDA/CDRH Recommendations for EMC/EMI in Healthcare Facilities from the FDA's Radiation-Emitting Products
General Principles of Software Validation; Final Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff from the U.S. Department Of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - January 11, 2002
Home Use Devices Booklet: How to Prepare for and Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices that Require Electricity - 16-page pdf file from the FDA. - May 2011
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  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)
PubMed Search Tool of the National Library Of Medicine's MEDLINE Database (allows you to search through over 11 million indexed articles). Due to copyright laws, only the abstracts (summaries) of the articles are usually listed. Some articles appear in full text on the publishers' web sites that are linked to PubMed. This page provides an Overview of PubMed.
dialysis technician articles   Continually Updated!
dialysis equipment articles   Continually Updated!
water treatment and dialysis articles   Continually Updated!
dialyzer reprocessingheat reuse  articles   Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
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  SCHOOLS AND ACCREDITATION

Core Curriculum for the Dialysis Technician - A Comprehensive Review of Hemodialysis: Fifth Edition - Developed by the Medical Education Institute, Inc., in cooperation with the National Association of Nephrology Technicians/Technologists (NANT).

ESRD Conditions for Coverage: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Patient Care Technicians - April 2010 - 5-page pdf from The Renal Network.
Patient Care Tech Training/Certification Options - 2-page pdf from The Renal Network.
Board of Nephrology Examiners, Inc. Nursing and Technology (BONENT) Examinations are given by Applied Measurement Professionals, Inc. (AMP). Fact Sheet on BONENT Examinations.
National Nephrology Certification Organization (NNCO) Certification Examinations in Clinical Nephrology Technology and Biomedical Nephrology Technology are given by the Professional Testing Corporation. Schedule for NNCO Testing.
The Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission (NNCC) offers the Certification for Clinical Hemodialysis Technicians (CCHT).
Dialysis Technician Requirements by State
A Career in Biomedical Equipment Technology Brochure (pdf) from the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) web site
Better Water, Inc. training facility in Smyrna, TN
BMET Study Guide: Preparing for Certification and Sharpening Your Skills - from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation
Body Weight - Body Water (pdf) - from Hemodialysis, Inc.
The Water Solution Package: On-line Water Training & Information Support Site - (pdf) Mar Cor Purification’s Training Course for Hemodialysis Water Systems
Hemodialysis Review Course - from Nephrology Clinical Solutions - Content review for the hemodialysis patient care technician (PCT) preparing for certification examination.
Online courses for Medical Equipment Technology: Application, Support and Management - from the University of Vermont
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  K/DOQI™ -  Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative ( pronounced "kay DOE key" )

K/ DOQI Main Page on the National Kidney Foundation web site


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  DISCUSSION FORUMS
Dialysis Technical Forum - Professional Discussion Forum for Technical Issues. Ask questions on water systems, electronics, troubleshooting, reuse, etc.
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  PRODUCTS
Medivators Renal Systems Services & Support - Support products and services for dialyzer reprocessing programs
Mar Cor Purification web site
Reprocessing Products Corporation
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  UPCOMING EVENTS
Listing of National Association of Nephrology Technicians/Technologists (NANT) Meetings
Listing of local ESRD Network Annual Meetings
Listing of Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) Seminars
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  RELATED TOPICS
Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Health Care and Social Service Workers (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) from OSHA web site
Biomedical Engineering web sites - Yahoo search
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS
E-mail to RenalWEB on the Technician Issues
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