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Last Updated 10/22/17

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is permanent kidney damage due to injury or disease. More than 20 million Americans-one in nine adults-have chronic kidney disease, and most don't even know it. More than 20 million others are at increased risk.

How long you can live with CKD depends on your age, other health problems, and how involved you become in your care. Some people with early CKD never experience kidney failure. Others reach kidney failure (end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) and live for decades with dialysis or kidney transplants.

Simple tests in a doctor's office can detect chronic kidney disease in its early stages when lifestyle changes and medication can be prescribed to delay or prevent the progression of kidney disease and its complications. Left untreated, chronic kidney disease may ultimately lead to kidney failure and/or heart disease.

There are many risk factors that make having CKD more likely, with the leading risk factors being diabetes, hypertension, and a family history of CKD.

Warning: Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  All patients have unique healthcare concerns and considerations and these must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.

  NEWS and LATEST ARTICLES

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Free, Full-Text Articles from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases - November 2017

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AKI on CKD: Heightened Injury, Suppressed Repair, and the Underlying Mechanisms - Free, Full-Text Article from Kidney International. - November 2017

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Facing the Challenge of Kidney Disease in Latin America - Article from The Lancet Kidney Campaign. - October 2017

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Open Access October 2017 Issue of Clinical Kidney Journal - 18 full-text articles. - October 2017

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Augmented Nurse Care Management in CKD Stages 4 to 5: A Randomized Trial - Free, full-text article from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - October 2017

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Long-Term Outcomes and Associated Risk Factors of Post-Hospitalization Dialysis-Dependent Acute Kidney Injury Patients - Abstract from Nephron. - October 2017

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A New Mouse Model of APOL1-Associated Kidney Diseases: When Traffic Gets Snarled, the Podocyte Suffers - Free, Full-Text Article from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases. - October 2017

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Common Elements in Rare Kidney Diseases: Conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference - Free, Full-Text Article from Kidney International. - October 2017

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Health Care Costs Associated with AKI- CJASN Express Abstract. - October 19, 2017

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The Friday Evening Case of Acute Kidney Injury: a Crystal Dilemma - Free, Full-Text, Advance Articles from Clinical Kidney Journal. - October 18, 2017

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Relatively Few Kidney Patients Need to Start Dialysis after Undergoing TAVR - Press release from American College of Cardiology. - October 16, 2017

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Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in a Nephrology Ward - First Online abstract from International Urology and Nephrology. - October 11, 2017

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Organoids of Human Kidneys Help to Study Renal Diseases - Article from MedGadget. - October 10, 2017

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Life Expectancy with Conservative Kidney Management - Graphic from the Kidney Supportive Care Research Group at the University of Alberta. - October 10, 2017

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What Can Cystatin C Test Contribute to Chronic Kidney Disease Management? - Press release and article from PLOS Medicine. - October 10, 2017

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Hospital Antibiotic Combo Tied to Acute Kidney Injury in Kids - Article from Reuters Health. New Online abstract from JAMA Pediatrics. - October 9, 2017

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New Treatment Paradigms for ADPKD: Moving Towards Precision Medicine - Advance Online abstract from Nature Reviews Nephrology. - October 9, 2017

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British Society of Rheumatology Publishes First UK Guideline for the Management of Adults with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - October 6, 2017

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Few Patients Hospitalized with Acute Kidney Injury Receive Recommended Follow-Up Care - Press release and CJASN Express abstract from the American Society of Nephrology. - October 6, 2017

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Japanese People Have Significantly Fewer Nephrons - Press release from Monash University (Australia). - October 6, 2017

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2017 Toronto Polycystic Kidney Disease Scientific Day - Lectures from UKidney.com.

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New Guidelines Published To Improve Diagnosis and Treatment of Lupus - Press release from the University of Birmingham (UK). Advance Articles executive summary and guidelines from Rheumatology. - October 6, 2017

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Last Month in Nephrology - October 2017 posting. - October 4, 2017

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Effect of Restricted Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Analogues in End-Stage Renal Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - First Online abstract from International Urology and Nephrology. - October 3, 2017

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Mini-Kidneys Grown in Lab Reveal Renal Disease Secrets - Press Release from University of Washington Health Sciences. - October 2, 2017

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Serum Procalcitonin Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients - Accepted Article abstract from Nephrology. - October 2, 2017

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Can-SOLVE CKD Network Annual Report 2016/17 - "In this report, we are pleased to highlight activities from our first year that are helping to change the culture of kidney research in Canada." - September 2017

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Managing Chronic Kidney Disease with Medication Therapy Management - (Registration required, but free.) Article from U.S. Pharmacist via Medscape Nephrology. - September 2017

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CJASN Express Abstracts - September 2017

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Articles from ASN's Kidney News Online - September 2017

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Role of Kidney Health Advocacy Organizations in Reducing the Global Burden of Kidney Disease - Update from The Lancet Kidney Campaign. - September 2017

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Insulin Resistance in Kidney Disease: Is There a Distinct Role Separate from That of Diabetes or Obesity? - Free, full-text review article from CardioRenal Medicine. - September 30, 2017

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National Research Priorities for Kidney Disease Identified by Patients - Press release from the National Kidney Foundation. - September 2017

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Nephrology Clinics in the US Can Join the CKDopps - Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. - September 27, 2017

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Pregnancy Related Acute Kidney Injury in High Income Countries: Still a Critical Issue - First Online abstract from Journal of Nephrology. - September 27, 2017

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Gradual Initiation of Dialysis As a Means to Reduce Cost While Providing Quality Health Care - Free, full-text, Advance Online correspondence from Nature Reviews Nephrology. - September 25, 2017

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New NephroCheck® Test Outcomes Data Show Significant Reduction in Kidney Injury, Hospital Stay - Press release from Ortho Clinical Diagnostics. - September 25, 2017

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Accumulation of Uremic Toxins Is Reflected Only Partially by Estimated GFR in Pediatric Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease - First Online abstract from Pediatric Nephrology. - September 22, 2017

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Air Pollution May Have Damaging Effects on the Kidneys - Press release and free, full-text, JASN Express article from the American Society of Nephrology. Article from HealthDay. - September 21, 2017

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Tobacco Use: A Chronic Kidney Disease Accelerant - Free, full-text, Issue-in-Progress editorial and related abstract from American Journal of Nephrology. - September 21, 2017

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Exercise May Stem Kidney Damage in Lupus Patients - Article from HealthDay. - September 19, 2017

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New Ultrasound Techniques Promise Further Advances in AKI and CKD - JASN Express abstract. - September 18, 2017

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Selena Gomez's Kidney Transplant Puts Lupus Center Stage - Article from HealthDay. - September 15, 2017

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Estimating Renal Function in Old People: an In-Depth Review - Free, Open Access, First Online article from International Urology and Nephrology. - September 15, 2017

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Are AKI Outcomes a Good Fit for the Quality Incentive Program? - Article from Nephrology News & Issues. - September 13, 2017

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Obtaining Cystatin-C Levels Useful in Chronic Kidney Disease - Article from Internal Medicine News. - September 13, 2017

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Diabetes Threatens Kidneys, Vision of Millions of Americans - Article from HealthDay. - September 13, 2017

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Researchers Turn to Creative Approaches to Battle Kidney Stones - Press release from the National Institutes of Health. - September 13, 2017

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Study Shows That Close to 2 Million US Adults Are at High Risk of Serious Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Subsequent Death - Press release from Diabetologia. - September 12, 2017

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Impact of Renal Replacement Therapy on Survival in Patients with KDIGO Stage 3 Acute Kidney Injury: a Propensity Score Matched Analysis - Accepted Article abstract from Nephrology. - September 12, 2017

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Biomarkers Predict Rapid Renal Decline in Type 2 Diabetes - Article from Renal & Urology News. - September 12, 2017

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Chronic Kidney Disease Risk Higher With Intensive BP Control - Article from Renal & Urology News. - September 11, 2017

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An Increasingly Complex Relationship Between Salt and Water - Free, full-text, Article in Press from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - September 9, 2017

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Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Defining, Staging, and Managing in Primary Care - Journal for Nurse Practitioners - Article from Medscape Nephrology (registration required, but free). - September 9, 2017

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The Hallmarks of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease - Article in Press Abstract from Kidney International. - September 8, 2017

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Full-Text Articles from Clinical Journal of the American Society Of Nephrology - September 7, 2017

 
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  WEB RESOURCES

blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney Beginnings: A Patient’s Guide to Living with Reduced Kidney Function - from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
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Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Patients - (1-page pdf) Medicare coverage summary and resources from Northwest Renal Network

About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from The National Kidney Foundation web site
American Diabetes Association web site
Are You At Risk for Kidney Disease? from the American Kidney Fund web site
Barriers to successful care for chronic kidney disease (pdf) from BMC Nephrology - October 27, 2005
Better Chronic Disease Care program from California Healthcare Foundation

CDC's Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative - The CKD Initiative currently includes surveillance, epidemiology, and state-based demonstration projects and economic studies in collaboration with partners from other government agencies, universities, and national organizations.

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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Chronic Kidney Disease from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
Chronic Kidney Disease from the Hypertension, Dialysis, & Clinical Nephrology (HDCN) web site
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Chronic Kidney Disease patient page from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - May 24/31, 2016

blue ball Consensus Expert Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Report of an International Conference (pdf) from the Journal of Pediatrics
blue ball Diabetic Kidney Disease - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
Education and Teaching Resources from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh Renal Unit web site
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ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (covers 2015 data) - (150-page pdf) The ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) via the national and regional renal registries in Europe and countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. For this 2015 Annual Report data sets from 52 national or regional renal registries in 36 countries were used.

2008 ESRD Briefing Book for State and Federal Policy Makers (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - from the ANNA web site
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Essentials of Chronic Kidney Disease - KidneyTalk podcast from Renal Support Network

blue ball Frequently Asked Questions About GFR Estimates (pdf) - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
blue ball General Nephrology - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
How to Have a Good Future with Kidney Disease a Life Options CKD Patient Education Toolkit - 2011
blue ball Infographic: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) from the Mayo Clinic News Network
IgA nephropathy from the About web site
KEY - Kidney Education and You - free kidney education classes from the DaVita web site
Kidney Diseases from the National Institute of Health web site
Kidney Diseases Dictionary from the National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Kidney Health Library from the Kidney & Urology Foundation of America (KUFA) web site
Life Options Rehabilitation Program Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease
Living Well with Chronic Kidney Disease (pdf) from the American Kidney Fund (AKF) web site
Medicare Coverage of Kidney Dialysis & Kidney Transplant Services (pdf) from the Medicare web site
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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases (NIDDK) Publications in English and Spanish - July 2014

  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines (Brochure) (EnglishSpanish)
  • Is My Child At Risk for Kidney Disease? (EnglishSpanish)
  • What I need to know about Kidney Failure and How It's Treated (EnglishSpanish)
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Northwest Renal Network's Choosing a Treatment Type - 2-page pdf from the NW Renal Network - December 2012
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Educational Materials from the PKD Foundation web site
Safe Kidney Care web site+
10 Steps for Protecting Kidney Health from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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Understanding Kidney Disease (Four free book chapters) - resource from ISN Education- January 2016

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Updated UK Guideline: Chronic Kidney Disease – Early Identification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care - July 2014

Uremic Toxins: What Are They? An Integrated Overview of Pathobiology and Classification from the Journal of Renal Nutrition

Video on Failing Kidneys and Different Treatment Options - Posting from the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - April 2015

What Is Your Kidney Score? from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
What You Can Do from the Life Options web site
When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease from the Nemours Foundation web site
 
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  ESSENTIALS AND CLASSICS

Chronic Kidney Disease: What Every Nurse Should Know - from the American Nephrology Nurses Association web site
  • Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease: An Overview of Causes, Stages, and Treatment
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 1 through 3
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 4 and 5: Overview of Therapy Options
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Transplantation
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Self-Care Dialysis
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Assisted Dialysis
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in the Pediatric Population
Core Curriculum: Chronic Kidney Disease - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 2007
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Updated Guideline: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care - Full-text from the National Guideline Clearinghouse. - December 2014

Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance (pdf) - article from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - September 10, 2004
Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease - recommendations from the American College of Physicians (October 2013)
Risk Factors for CKD from the Life Options web site
10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease from the Life Options web site
Frequently Asked Questions about CKD from the Life Options web site
Learn the Six Warning Signs of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disease from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
 
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  BEST CLINICAL PRACTICES

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF)
Guidelines for Managing Kidney Disease from the Canadian Medical Association
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Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines from Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - April 2016

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD5) - Free, full-text review article from Pediatric Nephrology. - September 2013

Testing for Chronic Kidney Disease: A Position Statement From the National Kidney Foundation - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - August 2007

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, full-text, Online First article from Pediatric Nephrology. - October 2012

Healthy People 2020 - National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines for managing Chronic Kidney Disease
Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral - from the Canadian Medical Association - 1999
 
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  K/DOQI™ -  Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative

K/ DOQI Main Page on the National Kidney Foundation web site
K/DOQI Guidelines: Clinical guidelines for when to initiate dialysis
 


  KDIGO™ -  Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes ( pronounced "kay de go" )

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) web site

  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)

Kidney Diseases (General) from MEDLINEplus Health Information
chronic kidney disease Continually Updated!
chronic kidney disease AND risk factors Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
 

  PRODUCTS

 
 

  STATISTICS

The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

Fast Facts on Kidney Disease - Statistics from the National Kidney Foundation

Average Annual Health Care Use and Expenditures for Kidney Disease among Adults 18 and Older, U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population, 2003-2007 - Statistical brief (7-page pdf) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Renal Data Extraction and Referencing (RenDER) System - new online data querying application accessible through the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) - USRDS Presentations & Posters, 2016 Researcher's Guide and the 2016 USRDS annual report - from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) web site

2014 National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet - 3-page pdf. - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

US Government Goals: Chronic Kidney Disease Chapter from the Healthy People 2020 Objectives
statehealthfacts.org - your source for state health data
 
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  UPCOMING EVENTS

NKF Health Screening Schedule - The National Kidney Foundation's (NKF) Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - scroll down to view multiple screening dates and contact phone numbers.
The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Programs & Events
 
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  RELATED TOPICS

Dialysis Outcomes and Topics from the RenalWEB web site Continually Updated!
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS

E-mail to RenalWEB on the Chronic Kidney Disease Page
 
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