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Last Updated 12/17/17

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is permanent kidney damage due to injury or disease. More than 20 million Americans-one in nine adults-have chronic kidney disease, and most don't even know it. More than 20 million others are at increased risk.

How long you can live with CKD depends on your age, other health problems, and how involved you become in your care. Some people with early CKD never experience kidney failure. Others reach kidney failure (end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) and live for decades with dialysis or kidney transplants.

Simple tests in a doctor's office can detect chronic kidney disease in its early stages when lifestyle changes and medication can be prescribed to delay or prevent the progression of kidney disease and its complications. Left untreated, chronic kidney disease may ultimately lead to kidney failure and/or heart disease.

There are many risk factors that make having CKD more likely, with the leading risk factors being diabetes, hypertension, and a family history of CKD.

Warning: Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  All patients have unique healthcare concerns and considerations and these must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.

  NEWS and LATEST ARTICLES

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Outcomes of Renal Replacement Therapy in Boys with Prune Belly Syndrome: Findings from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry - Free, Full-Text Article from Pediatric Nephrology.- January 2018

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Challenges of Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries - Article from The Lancet Kidney Campaign. - December 2017

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The Impact of Evacuation on the Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease after the Great East Japan Earthquake: the Fukushima Health Management Survey - Free, Open Access Article from Clinical and Experimental Nephrology. - December 2017

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Sulfasalazine-Induced Crystalluria Causing Severe Acute Kidney Injury - Free, Full-Text Article from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases. - December 2017

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Special Issue of Nephrology: 1st International Congress of Chinese Nephrologists, Scientific Congress on Nephropathies, 11–13 December 2015, Hong Kong - December 2017
Free, full-text articles include:

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Survival Rates Are Improving for Individuals with Kidney Failure - Press release and CJASN Express abstract from the American Society of Nephrology. - December 14, 2017

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New Cellular Approach Found to Control Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease - Press release from Children's Hospital Los Angeles Saban Research Institute. - December 14, 2017

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Causes of Death after a Hospitalization with AKI - JASN Express abstract. - December 14, 2017

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Role of Plasmapheresis in the Management of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Multiple Myeloma: Should We Abandon It? - Early View abstract from Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis. - December 14, 2017

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Kidney Diseases Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection - Abstract from The New England Journal of Medicine. - December 14, 2017

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Calciphylaxis in CKD Patients Linked to Hypercoagulable Conditions - Article from Renal & Urology News. - December 13, 2017

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Association between Urologic Malignancies and End-stage Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis - Accepted Article abstract from Nephrology. - December 13, 2017

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How the Kidneys Produce Concentrated Urine - December 13, 2017

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Centralized Population Health Coordinators Improve Care for Patients with Chronic Disease - Press release from Massachusetts General Hospital. - December 12, 2017

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Kidney Disease Increases Risk of Diabetes, Study Shows - Press release from Washington University in St. Louis. - December 11, 2017

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Rheumatoid Arthritis during Pregnancy May Increase Chronic Disease Risk in Children - December 11, 2017

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Higher Blood Urea Nitrogen Is Associated with Increased Risk of Incident Diabetes Mellitus - Free, Open Access, Article in Press from Kidney International. - December 10, 2017

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Higher Risk of Renal Disease in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: Antiviral Therapy Survival Benefit in Patients on Hemodialysis - Free, Open Access, Article in Press from Journal of Hepatology. - December 9, 2017

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Exposure to Contrast Media in the Perioperative Period Confers No Additional Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Surgical Patients - Advance Article Abstract from NDT. - December 9, 2017

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Acute Kidney Injury Linked with Doubled Inpatient Venous Thromboembolisms - Article from Internal Medicine News. - December 8, 2017

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Creatinine Linearity – Connecting the Dots Has Never Been So Complicated - Posting from the AJKD blog. - December 8, 2017

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What Do Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about Chronic Kidney Disease of Undetermined Cause in Meso-America? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Free, full-text, Advance Article from Clinical Kidney Journal. - December 8, 2017

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TRP'ing Up Chronic Kidney Disease - Abstract from Science. - December 8, 2017

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The CRISPR Gene Tool Allows Scientists To Reverse Diabetes and Kidney Disease in Mice - Press release from the Salk Institute. Free, full-text, Online Now article from Cell. - December 7, 2017

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New Compound Stops Progressive Kidney Disease in Its Tracks - Press release from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. - December 7, 2017

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Diabetic Kidney Disease – Challenges, Progress, and Possibilities - Free, Full-Text Article from the Clinical Journal of the American Society Of Nephrology. - December 7, 2017

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Dealing With Diabetes in Disaster Zones: Planning Is Vital - (Registration required, but free.) Article from Medscape Nephrology. - December 7, 2017

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Study Provides Insights on Immune Cells Involved in Kidney Disease - December 7, 2017

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Need to Reclassify Etiologies of ESRD on the CMS 2728 Medical Evidence Report - Free, full-text, CJASN Express article. - December 7, 2017

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Impact of Obesity on Modality Longevity, Residual Kidney Function, Peritonitis, and Survival Among Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients - Article in Press abstract from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - December 6, 2017

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The Crosstalk between the Kidney and the Gut: Implications for Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, Open Access article from BMC Nutrire. - December 5, 2017

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Population Health for CKD and Diabetes: Lessons From the Indian Health Service - Articles in Press Abstract from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases. - December 5, 2017

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And The Search for "Renal Troponin" Continues… - Posting from the AJKD blog. - December 5, 2017

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Full-Text Articles via Medscape Nephrology (registration required, but free) - December 5, 2017

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Diabetic CKD Patients Survive Longer With Metformin - Article from Renal & Urology News. - December 4, 2017

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Long-Term Renal and Overall Survival of Critically Ill Patients with Acute Renal Injury Who Received Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy - Free, Open Access article from Renal Failure. - December 4, 2017

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Kidney Disease Diagnosis May Benefit from DNA Sequencing - Press release from Columbia University Medical Center. Latest Article abstract from Annals of Internal Medicine. - December 4, 2017

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Frailty and Chronic Kidney Disease: Current Evidence and Continuing Uncertainties - Free, full-text, Advance Article from Clinical Kidney Journal. - December 2, 2017

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The Modality Mayhem of Modern Dialysis - Posting from the KidneyViews blog. - December 1, 2017

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Long-Term Clinical Outcomes after Early Initiation of RRT in Critically Ill Patients with AKI - JASN Express abstract. - December 1, 2017

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Validity of a Risk Prediction Equation for CKD After 10 Years of Follow-up in a Japanese Population: The Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study - Articles in Press Abstract from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases. - November 30, 2017

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ISN Protocols Vital to Save Kidney Disease Patients after Iran Earthquake - November 30, 2017

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Treatment Effects of Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System Blockade on Kidney Failure and Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients - Free, Open Access article from BMC Nephrology. - November 29, 2017

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High and Low Sodium Intakes Are Associated with Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Normal Renal Function and Hypertension - Article in Press Abstract from Kidney International. - November 29, 2017

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A Narrative Review of the Impact of Interventions in Acute Kidney Injury - Free, Open Access, First Online article from Journal of Nephrology. - November 29, 2017

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Prediction Model and Risk Stratification Tool of Survival in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease - Article in Press abstract and Open Access article (31-page PDF) from Kidney International Reports. - November 28, 2017

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Understanding a Therapeutic Paradox for Treating Thrombo Vascular Complications in Kidney Disease - Press release from Boston University School of Medicine. - November 28, 2017

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Renal Replacement Therapy Intensity for Acute Kidney Injury and Recovery to Dialysis Independence: a Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis - Advance Article abstract from NDT. - November 23, 2017

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Longitudinal FGF23 Trajectories and Mortality in Patients with CKD - JASN Express abstract. - November 22, 2017

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Metabolites Altered in Chronic Kidney Disease - Press release from University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. - November 22, 2017

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Models of Care for Chronic Kidney Disease: a Systematic Review - Accepted Article abstract and full-text article (24-page PDF) from Nephrology. - November 21, 2017

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A Dipstick That Could Transform Disease Diagnosis - November 21, 2017

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Article in Press Abstracts from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases - November 20, 2017

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New Oral Anticoagulant Drugs Associated with Lower Kidney Risks - Press release from the Mayo Clinic. - November 20, 2017

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AKI in the Outpatient Dialysis Setting - Article from Nephrology News & Issues. - November 20, 2017

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Patient Centered Medical Home Model Improves Chronic Disease Management - Press release from the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences. - November 20, 2017

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Adolescent Nephrology: an Emerging Frontier for Kidney Care in Sub-Saharan Africa - Free, Full-Text Article from Nephrology. - November 16, 2017

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Relationship between Educational and Occupational Levels, and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Multi-ethnic Sample — The HELIUS Study - Free, Open Access Article from PLOS ONE. - November 1, 2017

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Emergency Medicine Evaluation and Management of the End Stage Renal Disease Patient - Articles in Press Abstract from the American Journal of Emergency Medicine. - September 5, 2017

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Definition, Management, and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury: An International Survey of Nephrologists - Abstract from Kidney Diseases. - August 3, 2017

 
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  WEB RESOURCES

blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney Beginnings: A Patient’s Guide to Living with Reduced Kidney Function - from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
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Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Patients - (1-page pdf) Medicare coverage summary and resources from Northwest Renal Network

About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from The National Kidney Foundation web site
American Diabetes Association web site
Are You At Risk for Kidney Disease? from the American Kidney Fund web site
Barriers to successful care for chronic kidney disease (pdf) from BMC Nephrology - October 27, 2005
Better Chronic Disease Care program from California Healthcare Foundation

CDC's Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative - The CKD Initiative currently includes surveillance, epidemiology, and state-based demonstration projects and economic studies in collaboration with partners from other government agencies, universities, and national organizations.

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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Chronic Kidney Disease from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
Chronic Kidney Disease from the Hypertension, Dialysis, & Clinical Nephrology (HDCN) web site
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Chronic Kidney Disease patient page from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - May 24/31, 2016

blue ball Consensus Expert Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Report of an International Conference (pdf) from the Journal of Pediatrics
blue ball Diabetic Kidney Disease - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
Education and Teaching Resources from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh Renal Unit web site
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ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (covers 2015 data) - (150-page pdf) The ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) via the national and regional renal registries in Europe and countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. For this 2015 Annual Report data sets from 52 national or regional renal registries in 36 countries were used.

2008 ESRD Briefing Book for State and Federal Policy Makers (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - from the ANNA web site
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Essentials of Chronic Kidney Disease - KidneyTalk podcast from Renal Support Network

blue ball Frequently Asked Questions About GFR Estimates (pdf) - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
blue ball General Nephrology - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
How to Have a Good Future with Kidney Disease a Life Options CKD Patient Education Toolkit - 2011
blue ball Infographic: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) from the Mayo Clinic News Network
IgA nephropathy from the About web site
KEY - Kidney Education and You - free kidney education classes from the DaVita web site
Kidney Diseases from the National Institute of Health web site
Kidney Diseases Dictionary from the National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Kidney Health Library from the Kidney & Urology Foundation of America (KUFA) web site
Life Options Rehabilitation Program Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease
Living Well with Chronic Kidney Disease (pdf) from the American Kidney Fund (AKF) web site
Medicare Coverage of Kidney Dialysis & Kidney Transplant Services (pdf) from the Medicare web site
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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases (NIDDK) Publications in English and Spanish - July 2014

  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines (Brochure) (EnglishSpanish)
  • Is My Child At Risk for Kidney Disease? (EnglishSpanish)
  • What I need to know about Kidney Failure and How It's Treated (EnglishSpanish)
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Northwest Renal Network's Choosing a Treatment Type - 2-page pdf from the NW Renal Network - December 2012
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Educational Materials from the PKD Foundation web site
Safe Kidney Care web site+
10 Steps for Protecting Kidney Health from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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Understanding Kidney Disease (Four free book chapters) - resource from ISN Education- January 2016

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Updated UK Guideline: Chronic Kidney Disease – Early Identification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care - July 2014

Uremic Toxins: What Are They? An Integrated Overview of Pathobiology and Classification from the Journal of Renal Nutrition

Video on Failing Kidneys and Different Treatment Options - Posting from the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - April 2015

What Is Your Kidney Score? from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
What You Can Do from the Life Options web site
When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease from the Nemours Foundation web site
 
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  ESSENTIALS AND CLASSICS

Chronic Kidney Disease: What Every Nurse Should Know - from the American Nephrology Nurses Association web site
  • Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease: An Overview of Causes, Stages, and Treatment
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 1 through 3
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 4 and 5: Overview of Therapy Options
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Transplantation
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Self-Care Dialysis
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Assisted Dialysis
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in the Pediatric Population
Core Curriculum: Chronic Kidney Disease - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 2007
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Updated Guideline: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care - Full-text from the National Guideline Clearinghouse. - December 2014

Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance (pdf) - article from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - September 10, 2004
Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease - recommendations from the American College of Physicians (October 2013)
Risk Factors for CKD from the Life Options web site
10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease from the Life Options web site
Frequently Asked Questions about CKD from the Life Options web site
Learn the Six Warning Signs of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disease from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
 
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  BEST CLINICAL PRACTICES

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF)
Guidelines for Managing Kidney Disease from the Canadian Medical Association
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Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines from Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - April 2016

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD5) - Free, full-text review article from Pediatric Nephrology. - September 2013

Testing for Chronic Kidney Disease: A Position Statement From the National Kidney Foundation - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - August 2007

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, full-text, Online First article from Pediatric Nephrology. - October 2012

Healthy People 2020 - National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines for managing Chronic Kidney Disease
Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral - from the Canadian Medical Association - 1999
 
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  K/DOQI™ -  Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative

K/ DOQI Main Page on the National Kidney Foundation web site
K/DOQI Guidelines: Clinical guidelines for when to initiate dialysis
 


  KDIGO™ -  Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes ( pronounced "kay de go" )

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) web site

  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)

Kidney Diseases (General) from MEDLINEplus Health Information
chronic kidney disease Continually Updated!
chronic kidney disease AND risk factors Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
 

  PRODUCTS

 
 

  STATISTICS

The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

Fast Facts on Kidney Disease - Statistics from the National Kidney Foundation

Average Annual Health Care Use and Expenditures for Kidney Disease among Adults 18 and Older, U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population, 2003-2007 - Statistical brief (7-page pdf) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Renal Data Extraction and Referencing (RenDER) System - new online data querying application accessible through the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) - USRDS Presentations & Posters, 2016 Researcher's Guide and the 2017 USRDS annual report - from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) web site

2014 National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet - 3-page pdf. - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

US Government Goals: Chronic Kidney Disease Chapter from the Healthy People 2020 Objectives
statehealthfacts.org - your source for state health data
 
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  UPCOMING EVENTS

NKF Health Screening Schedule - The National Kidney Foundation's (NKF) Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - scroll down to view multiple screening dates and contact phone numbers.
The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Programs & Events
 
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  RELATED TOPICS

Dialysis Outcomes and Topics from the RenalWEB web site Continually Updated!
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS

E-mail to RenalWEB on the Chronic Kidney Disease Page
 
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