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Last Updated 03/12/17

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is permanent kidney damage due to injury or disease. More than 20 million Americans-one in nine adults-have chronic kidney disease, and most don't even know it. More than 20 million others are at increased risk.

How long you can live with CKD depends on your age, other health problems, and how involved you become in your care. Some people with early CKD never experience kidney failure. Others reach kidney failure (end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) and live for decades with dialysis or kidney transplants.

Simple tests in a doctor's office can detect chronic kidney disease in its early stages when lifestyle changes and medication can be prescribed to delay or prevent the progression of kidney disease and its complications. Left untreated, chronic kidney disease may ultimately lead to kidney failure and/or heart disease.

There are many risk factors that make having CKD more likely, with the leading risk factors being diabetes, hypertension, and a family history of CKD.

Warning: Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  All patients have unique healthcare concerns and considerations and these must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.

  NEWS and LATEST ARTICLES

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With More Mainers on Dialysis, Local Centers Struggle to Keep Up - Article from Bangor Daily News. - March 13, 2017

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Cost of Kidney Dialysis Poses Ethical Dilemma in Sub-Saharan Africa - Article from Reuters Health. Free, Open Access, Online First article from The Lancet Global Health. - March 9, 2017

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Sickle Cell Trait Tied to Higher Kidney Failure Risk for Blacks - Article from HealthDay. JASN Express abstract. Article from MedPage Today (registration required). - March 9, 2017

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New 3D Technology Improves Patient Care for Complex Kidney Surgeries - Press release from Intermountain Medical Center. - March 9, 2017

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March 9 — Happy World Kidney Day! - Notice from the International Society of Nephrology. World Kidney Day web site. Press releases from the National Kidney Foundation and Keck Medicine of USC. - March 9, 2017

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Longitudinal Assessment of Myocardial Function in Childhood Chronic Kidney Disease, during Dialysis, and Following Kidney Transplantation - First Online abstract from Pediatric Nephrology. - March 8, 2017

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Leveraging Big Data and Electronic Health Records to Enhance Novel Approaches to Acute Kidney Injury Research and Care - Free, Full-Text, Issue-in-Progress Article from Blood Purification. - March 8, 2017

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Use of Causal Diagrams to Inform the Design and Interpretation of Observational Studies: An Example from the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) - Free, full-text article from Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - March 7, 2017

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CDC Mapping Tool Shows Prevalence of Certain Chronic Conditions for 500 Cities - News brief from AHANews. Mapping tool from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. - March 7, 2017

"Having the ability to report and map health data at city and neighborhood levels is a game changer for public health," said Wayne Giles, M.D., director of CDC's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention."

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Lung Cancer May Go Undetected in Kidney Cancer Patients - March 7, 2017

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Residual Kidney Function: Implications in the Era of Personalized Medicine - Early View Abstract from Seminars In Dialysis. - March 6, 2017

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Genetic Clues of IgA Nephropathy Uncovered - March 6, 2017

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Beating Kidney Disease Together - Press release from the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Summary of the BEAT-DKD study on diabetic kidney disease. - March 3, 2017

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Follow-Up of Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates during Childhood Years (FANCY): a Prospective Cohort Study - First Online abstract from Pediatric Nephrology. - March 3, 2017

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Aurinia Announces Voclosporin Meets 48-Week Remission Endpoints, Achieving Highest Complete Remission Rate of Any Global Lupus Nephritis Study - Press release. - March 1, 2017

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Decreasing Sudden Deaths in Dialysis: Drugs, Devices, or Dialytic Developments? - Posting from the AJKD blog. - March 1, 2017

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Advance Access Abstracts from NDT - March 1, 2017

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Management of Type 2 Diabetes in 2017 – Getting to Goal - Free, full-text, New Online viewpoint article from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - March 1, 2017

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Highly Prevalent Gene Variants in Minority Populations Cause Kidney Disease - Press release from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. - March 1, 2017

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Abstracts from Nephron - March 2017

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Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury among Patients Undergoing Cardiac and Vascular Interventions: a Meta-Analysis - Free, Open Access Article from Journal of Nephrology. - February 2017

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Free, Open Access Articles from BMC Nephrology - February 28, 2017

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Acute Kidney Disease and Renal Recovery: Consensus Report of the Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) 16 Workgroup - Free, full-text, Advance Online consensus statement from Nature Reviews Nephrology. - February 27, 2017

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Impact of Pay-For-Performance on Access at First Dialysis in Queensland - Accepted Article abstract from Nephrology. - February 27, 2017

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Cigarette Smoking and Chronic Kidney Disease in the General Population: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies - Advance Access Abstract from NDT. - February 27, 2017

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Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease: Think (At Least) Twice! - Free, full-text, Advance Article from Clinical Kidney Journal. - February 27, 2017

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Statistical Methods for Cohort Studies of CKD: Survival Analysis in the Setting of Competing Risks - CJASN Express abstract. - February 27, 2017

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Targeting Immunity in End-Stage Renal Disease - Free, full-text, Issue-in-Progress, in-depth topic review from American Journal of Nephrology. - February 25, 2017

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Relationship among Mortality of Patients with Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery, Fluid Balance and Ultrafiltration of Renal Replacement Therapy: An Observational Study - Issue-in-Progress Abstract from Blood Purification. - February 25, 2017

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Video: How Digital Tools Can Help Rural Patients With Chronic Conditions - Video interview from Hospitals & Health Networks. - February 24, 2017

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Kidney Damage Diagnosis May Be Inaccurate for Many, Suggests Study - Press release from Columbia University Medical Center. Commentary extract from The Lancet. - February 23, 2017

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HIV+ Kidney Failure Patients Face Hurdles in Receiving Necessary Transplants - Press release and CJASN Express abstract from the American Society of Nephrology. - February 23, 2017

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Diabetic Kidney Disease Is Decoded, Offering New Avenues for Diagnosis and Treatment - Press release from Mount Sinai School of Medicine. - February 23, 2017

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Furosemide With Matched Hydration Prevents Contrast Nephropathy - Article from Renal & Urology News. Full-text article from Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - February 23, 2017

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Popular Heartburn Drugs Linked to Gradual Yet 'Silent' Kidney Damage - Press release from Washington University in St. Louis. Free, full-text, Article in Press from Kidney International. - February 22, 2017

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In the News: Death of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy - Posting from the NephronPower blog. - February 21, 2017

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Raising Dietary Potassium to Sodium Ratio Helps Reduce Heart, Kidney Disease - February 21, 2017

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Prophylactic Hydration to Protect Renal Function from Intravascular Iodinated Contrast Material in Patients at High Risk of Contrast Induced Nephropathy (AMACING): a Prospective, Randomized, Phase 3, Controlled, Open Label, Noninferiority Trial - Online First abstract from The Lancet. - February 20, 2017

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Free, Full-Text, Advance Access Articles from Clinical Kidney Journal - February 18, 2017

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International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 Initiative (Zero Preventable Deaths from Acute Kidney Injury by 2025): Focus on Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Low-Income Countries - Free, Open Access, Advance Access Article from Clinical Kidney Journal. - February 18, 2017

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Strategies for the Optimal Timing to Start Renal Replacement Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury - Article in Press abstract from Kidney International. - February 17, 2017

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Advance Articles Abstracts from NDT - February 16, 2017

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UT Southwestern Researchers Develop Potential Treatment for Polycystic Kidney Disease - February 16, 2017

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Articles in Press Abstracts from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases - February 15, 2017

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Stop Adding Insult to Injury-Identifying and Managing Risk Factors for the Progression of Acute Kidney Injury in Children - Free, full-text, First Online, Open Access, educational review from Pediatric Nephrology. - February 15, 2017

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Fluid Overload and Survival in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy - Free, Open Access Article from PLOS ONE. - February 14, 2017

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A New Contrast Agent for MRI - Press release from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. - February 14, 2017

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Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with a History of Neonatal Acute Kidney Injury - First Online abstract from Pediatric Nephrology. - February 14, 2017

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Nano Dimension Launching 3-D Bioprinting Subsidiary Dedicated to Kidney Disease Solutions - Press release via Morningstar. - February 13, 2017

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'Antiaging' Hormone Could Unlock New Treatments for Kidney and Heart Disease - February 12, 2017

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Free, Full-Text, Advance Access Articles from NDT - February 11, 2017

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Dialysis Access, Infections, and Hospitalizations in Unplanned Dialysis Start Patients: Results from the OPTiONS Study - Advance Online Abstract from the International Journal of Artificial Organs. - February 11, 2017

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Advance Access Abstracts from NDT - February 11, 2017

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Diabetes Control and the Risks of ESRD and Mortality in Patients With CKD- Articles in Press Abstract from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - February 10, 2017

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Low Renal Replacement Therapy Incidence among Slowly Progressing Elderly Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Referred to Nephrology Care: an Observational Study - Free, Open Access article from BMC Nephrology. - February 10, 2017

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Experiences of Patients Undergoing Dialysis Who Are from Ethnic and Racial Minorities - Free, Full-Text Article from Journal of Renal Care. - February 3, 2017

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The Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy (CORETH) Project: Dialysis Patients' Psychosocial Characteristics and Treatment Satisfaction - Free, Full-Text Article from NDT. - February 02, 2017

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Targeting Access to Kidney Care Via Telehealth: The VA Experience - Telehealth in Nephrology —  Free Jan. 2017 Issue of Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease. - January 2017

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Effect of AST-120 in Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment: Still a Controversy? - Free, full-text, Issue-in-Progress article from Nephron. - December 14, 2016

 
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  WEB RESOURCES

blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney Beginnings: A Patient’s Guide to Living with Reduced Kidney Function - from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
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Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Patients - (1-page pdf) Medicare coverage summary and resources from Northwest Renal Network

About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from The National Kidney Foundation web site
American Diabetes Association web site
Are You At Risk for Kidney Disease? from the American Kidney Fund web site
Barriers to successful care for chronic kidney disease (pdf) from BMC Nephrology - October 27, 2005
Better Chronic Disease Care program from California Healthcare Foundation

CDC's Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative - The CKD Initiative currently includes surveillance, epidemiology, and state-based demonstration projects and economic studies in collaboration with partners from other government agencies, universities, and national organizations.

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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Choosing the Right Treatment from Fresenius Medical Care/UltraCare web site
Chronic Kidney Disease from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
Chronic Kidney Disease from the Hypertension, Dialysis, & Clinical Nephrology (HDCN) web site
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Chronic Kidney Disease patient page from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - May 24/31, 2016

blue ball Consensus Expert Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Report of an International Conference (pdf) from the Journal of Pediatrics
blue ball Diabetic Kidney Disease - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
Education and Teaching Resources from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh Renal Unit web site
2008 ESRD Briefing Book for State and Federal Policy Makers (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - from the ANNA web site
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Essentials of Chronic Kidney Disease - KidneyTalk podcast from Renal Support Network

blue ball Frequently Asked Questions About GFR Estimates (pdf) - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
blue ball General Nephrology - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
How to Have a Good Future with Kidney Disease a Life Options CKD Patient Education Toolkit - 2011
IgA nephropathy from the About web site
KEY - Kidney Education and You - free kidney education classes from the DaVita web site
Kidney Diseases from the National Institute of Health web site
Kidney Diseases Dictionary from the National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Kidney Health Library from the Kidney & Urology Foundation of America (KUFA) web site
Life Options Rehabilitation Program Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease
Living Well with Chronic Kidney Disease (pdf) from the American Kidney Fund (AKF) web site
Medicare Coverage of Kidney Dialysis & Kidney Transplant Services (pdf) from the Medicare web site
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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases (NIDDK) Publications in English and Spanish - July 2014

  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines (Brochure) (EnglishSpanish)
  • Is My Child At Risk for Kidney Disease? (EnglishSpanish)
  • What I need to know about Kidney Failure and How It's Treated (EnglishSpanish)
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Northwest Renal Network's Choosing a Treatment Type - 2-page pdf from the NW Renal Network - December 2012
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Educational Materials from the PKD Foundation web site
Safe Kidney Care web site
10 Steps for Protecting Kidney Health from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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Understanding Kidney Disease (Four free book chapters) - resource from ISN Education- January 2016

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Updated UK Guideline: Chronic Kidney Disease – Early Identification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care - July 2014

Uremic Toxins: What Are They? An Integrated Overview of Pathobiology and Classification from the Journal of Renal Nutrition

Video on Failing Kidneys and Different Treatment Options - Posting from the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - April 2015

What Is Your Kidney Score? from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
What You Can Do from the Life Options web site
When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease from the Nemours Foundation web site
 
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  ESSENTIALS AND CLASSICS

Chronic Kidney Disease: What Every Nurse Should Know - from the American Nephrology Nurses Association web site
  • Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease: An Overview of Causes, Stages, and Treatment
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 1 through 3
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 4 and 5: Overview of Therapy Options
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Transplantation
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Self-Care Dialysis
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Assisted Dialysis
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in the Pediatric Population
Core Curriculum: Chronic Kidney Disease - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 2007
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Updated Guideline: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care - Full-text from the National Guideline Clearinghouse. - December 2014

Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance (pdf) - article from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - September 10, 2004
Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease - recommendations from the American College of Physicians (October 2013)
Risk Factors for CKD from the Life Options web site
10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease from the Life Options web site
Frequently Asked Questions about CKD from the Life Options web site
Learn the Six Warning Signs of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disease from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
 
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  BEST CLINICAL PRACTICES

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF)
Guidelines for Managing Kidney Disease from the Canadian Medical Association
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Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines from Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - April 2016

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD5) - Free, full-text review article from Pediatric Nephrology. - September 2013

Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Blood Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease  (Published 2012) from the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) web site
Guidelines for Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Classification of Chronic Kidney Disease (Published 2013) from the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) web site
Testing for Chronic Kidney Disease: A Position Statement From the National Kidney Foundation - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - August 2007

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, full-text, Online First article from Pediatric Nephrology. - October 2012

Healthy People 2020 - National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines for managing Chronic Kidney Disease
Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral - from the Canadian Medical Association - 1999
 
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  K/DOQI™ -  Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative

K/ DOQI Main Page on the National Kidney Foundation web site
K/DOQI Guidelines: Clinical guidelines for when to initiate dialysis
 


  KDIGO™ -  Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes ( pronounced "kay de go" )

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) web site

  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)

Kidney Diseases (General) from MEDLINEplus Health Information
chronic kidney disease Continually Updated!
chronic kidney disease AND risk factors Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
 

  PRODUCTS

 
 

  STATISTICS

The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

Fast Facts on Kidney Disease - Statistics from the National Kidney Foundation

Average Annual Health Care Use and Expenditures for Kidney Disease among Adults 18 and Older, U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population, 2003-2007 - Statistical brief (7-page pdf) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
USRDS Presentations & Posters, 2015 Researcher's Guide, 2016 USRDS annual report and the 2013 USRDS Atlas of CKD & ESRD - from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) web site

2014 National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet - 3-page pdf. - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

US Government Goals: Chronic Kidney Disease Chapter from the Healthy People 2020 Objectives
statehealthfacts.org - your source for state health data
 
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  UPCOMING EVENTS

NKF Health Screening Schedule - The National Kidney Foundation's (NKF) Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - scroll down to view multiple screening dates and contact phone numbers.
The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Programs & Events
 
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  RELATED TOPICS

Dialysis Outcomes and Topics from the RenalWEB web site Continually Updated!
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS

E-mail to RenalWEB on the Chronic Kidney Disease Page
 
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