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Last Updated 3/10/19

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is permanent kidney damage due to injury or disease. More than 20 million Americans-one in nine adults-have chronic kidney disease, and most don't even know it. More than 20 million others are at increased risk.

How long you can live with CKD depends on your age, other health problems, and how involved you become in your care. Some people with early CKD never experience kidney failure. Others reach kidney failure (end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) and live for decades with dialysis or kidney transplants.

Simple tests in a doctor's office can detect chronic kidney disease in its early stages when lifestyle changes and medication can be prescribed to delay or prevent the progression of kidney disease and its complications. Left untreated, chronic kidney disease may ultimately lead to kidney failure and/or heart disease.

There are many risk factors that make having CKD more likely, with the leading risk factors being diabetes, hypertension, and a family history of CKD.

Warning: Changes should never be made in a patient's treatment or care based solely on the information found here.  All patients have unique healthcare concerns and considerations and these must all be taken into account before any changes can be safely made.  All medical and therapeutic decisions must come from a qualified health care provider.  Read RenalWEB's Legal Disclaimer before proceeding.

  NEWS and LATEST ARTICLES

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Free, Full-Text Articles from Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - March 2019

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Free, Full-Text Articles from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases - March 2019

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Free, Full-Text Articles from Kidney International - March 2019

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Free eBook To Know about the Correct Way to Prevent and Treat Kidney Failure - A 'Common Man's Guide' for World Kidney Day. - March 2019

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Secondhand Smoke Linked with Higher Kidney Disease Risk - Press release and Published Ahead of Print CJASN abstract from the American Society of Nephrology. - March 7, 2019

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A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Age, Sex and Race on Body Composition in Chronic Kidney Disease - Advance Article abstract from NDT. - March 7, 2019

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Gait Characteristics of CKD Patients: a Systematic Review - Free, Open Access Article from BMC Nephrology. - March 6, 2019

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ASN and NIDDK Initiatives to Foster Kidney Research and Investigators - Article from Kidney News Online. - March 2019

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Sodium and Potassium Dietary Reference Intake Values Updated in New Report; Introduces New Category for Sodium Based on Chronic Disease Risk Reduction - Press release from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. - March 5, 2019

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Alcohol Consumption and Incident Kidney Disease: Results From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study - Article in Press abstract from Journal of Renal Nutrition. - March 5, 2019

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Association of Urinary Oxalate Excretion With the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression - New Online abstract and editorial extract from JAMA Internal Medicine. - March 4, 2019

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Towards the Best Kidney Failure Prediction Tool: a Systematic Review and Selection Aid - Advance Articles Abstract from NDT. - March 4, 2019

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Kidney Disease Killer (Calcification) Vulnerable to Targeted Nano Therapy - Press release from Clemson University. - March 4, 2019

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Estimated GFR at Dialysis Initiation and Mortality in Children and Adolescents - Articles in Press abstract from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - March 1, 2019

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Development of an Electronic Health Record-based Chronic Kidney Disease Registry to Promote Population Health Management - Free, Open Access Article from BMC Nephrology. - March 1, 2019

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Recommendations for the Care of Patients Receiving Conservative Kidney Management - Published Ahead of Print CJASN abstract. - February 2019

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Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: An Update on Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment - Free, Full-Text Article from Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis. - February 2019

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Online First Abstracts from American Journal Of Nephrology - February 28, 2019

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Predicting Outcomes in AKI Survivors: Searching for the Crystal Ball - Free, Open Access, Article in Press from Kidney International Reports. - February 27, 2019

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US FDA Approves Expanded FARXIGA and XIGDUO XR Labels for Use in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Moderate Renal Impairment - AstraZeneca press release. - February 27, 2019

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Prevalence and Risk Factors for CKD Among Brickmaking Workers in La Paz Centro, Nicaragua - Articles in Press Abstract from American Journal Of Kidney Diseases. - February 27, 2019

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Children of a Lesser God: Exclusion of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients from Clinical Trials - Advance Article abstract from NDT. - February 27, 2019

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Is Kidney Failure a Man's Disease? - Press release from ERA-EDTA. - February 26, 2019

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Adolescent Hypertension Linked to Later End-Stage Renal Disease - News brief from NEJM Journal Watch. New Online abstract from JAMA Internal Medicine. - February 26, 2019

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A Review of Cannabis in Chronic Kidney Disease Symptom Management - Free, Open Access article from Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease. - February 22, 2019

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How an Israeli Start-Up Turned the Cellphone into a Testing Lab for Kidney Disease - Article from CNBC. - February 22, 2019

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Stopping Inflammation from Becoming Chronic - February 22, 2019

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Common Acid Reflux Medications Linked to Increased Kidney Disease Risk - Press release from UC San Diego. - February 19, 2019

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Acute Kidney Injury: to Dialyze or to Filter? - Advance Article abstract from NDT. - February 18, 2019

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Predictors of Withdrawal from Renal Replacement Therapy among Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Renal Replacement Therapy - First Online abstract from Clinical and Experimental Nephrology. - February 16, 2019

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Evidence-Based Care May Improve Outcomes for Patients with Acute Kidney Injury - Press release and Published Ahead of Print JASN abstract from the American Society of Nephrology. - February 15, 2019

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Clarifying the Concept of Chronic Kidney Disease for Non-Nephrologists - Free, full-text, Advance Article from Clinical Kidney Journal. - February 14, 2019

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Kidney Failure Patients Face Higher Risk of Cancer Death - Press release and Published Ahead of Print JASN abstract from the American Society of Nephrology. Article from HealthDay. - February 14, 2019

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Free, Open Access Articles from BMC Nephrology - February 14, 2019

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Genetic Testing for Chronic Kidney Disease? Yes, Please - Commmentary from Nephrology Journal Club. - February 12, 2019

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Role of Estrogen in Controlling Type 2 Diabetes - Press release from Texas A&M. - February 12, 2019

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Merck, Pfizer Combo Treatment Boosts Kidney Cancer Survival - Article from Reuters. - February 11, 2019

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A Validation Study of Administrative Health Care Data to Detect Acute Kidney Injury in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit - Free, Open Access article from Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease. - February 10, 2019

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My Journey from Nicaragua to London to Study CKDu: 5 Lessons Learned - Posting from the Renal Fellow Network blog. - February 8, 2019

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Conservative Management in End-stage Renal Disease: A Tale of Two Countries - Posting from the KidneyViews blog. - February 7, 2019

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Mortality in Incident Maintenance Dialysis Patients Versus Incident Solid Organ Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Cohort - Free, full-text, Article in Press from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - February 6, 2019

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International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) Standard Set for Chronic Kidney Disease -"The ICHOM Standard Set for Chronic Kidney Disease is the result of hard work by a group of leading physicians, measurement experts and patients. It is our recommendation of the outcomes that matter most to patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. We urge all providers around the world to start measuring these outcomes to better understand how to improve the lives of their patients." - December 20, 2018

Related Article in Press abstract from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

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Lower Short-Term Mortality in ICU Patients on Chronic Dialysis Than in Those Requiring Acute Dialysis - Early View abstract from Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. - December 3, 2018

 
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  WEB RESOURCES

blue ball Latest Scientific Journal Articles on Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney Beginnings: A Patient’s Guide to Living with Reduced Kidney Function - from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
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Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Patients - (1-page pdf) Medicare coverage summary and resources from Northwest Renal Network

About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from The National Kidney Foundation web site
American Diabetes Association web site
Are You At Risk for Kidney Disease? from the American Kidney Fund web site
Barriers to successful care for chronic kidney disease (pdf) from BMC Nephrology - October 27, 2005

CDC's Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative - The CKD Initiative currently includes surveillance, epidemiology, and state-based demonstration projects and economic studies in collaboration with partners from other government agencies, universities, and national organizations.

blue ball CKD Booklet for Professional - 7.0 edition 2015
blue ball Chronic Kidney Disease Change Package from The National Kidney Foundation web site
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Chronic Kidney Disease from the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) web site
Chronic Kidney Disease from the Hypertension, Dialysis, & Clinical Nephrology (HDCN) web site
blue ball Chronic Kidney Disease from the American Kidney Fund web site
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Chronic Kidney Disease patient page from the Journal of the American Medical Association. - May 24/31, 2016

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Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Kidney Disease — Fundamental Principles - Free, Full-Text, CJASN Express Articles - June 2018

blue ball Consensus Expert Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Report of an International Conference (pdf) from the Journal of Pediatrics
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new Free eBook To Know about the Correct Way to Prevent and Treat Kidney Failure a 'Common Man's Guide' for World Kidney Day. - March 2019

blue ball Diabetic Kidney Disease - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
Education and Teaching Resources from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh Renal Unit web site
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ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (covers 2015 data) - (150-page pdf) The ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) via the national and regional renal registries in Europe and countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. For this 2015 Annual Report data sets from 52 national or regional renal registries in 36 countries were used.

2008 ESRD Briefing Book for State and Federal Policy Makers (pdf format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - from the ANNA web site
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Essentials of Chronic Kidney Disease - KidneyTalk podcast from Renal Support Network

blue ball Frequently Asked Questions About GFR Estimates (pdf) - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
blue ball General Nephrology - this is a growing library of key high-impact articles in nephrology, chosen by UKidney's contributors as suggested reading for nephrology trainees and practitioners.
blue ball Guide to Dialysis and Kidney Disease - from the National Council for Aging Care
How to Have a Good Future with Kidney Disease a Life Options CKD Patient Education Toolkit - 2011
blue ball Infographic: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) from the Mayo Clinic News Network
IgA nephropathy from the About web site
KEY - Kidney Education and You - free kidney education classes from the DaVita web site
Kidney Diseases from the National Institute of Health web site
Kidney Diseases Dictionary from the National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
Kidney Health Library from the Kidney & Urology Foundation of America (KUFA) web site
Life Options Rehabilitation Program Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease
Living Well with Chronic Kidney Disease (pdf) from the American Kidney Fund (AKF) web site
blue ball Management of Acute Kidney Injury: Core Curriculum 2018 from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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Mayo Clinic Minute: Understanding Chronic Kidney Disease - 1-minute video.

blue ball Mayo Clinic Q and A: Understanding chronic kidney disease from the Mayo Clinic web site
Medicare Coverage of Kidney Dialysis & Kidney Transplant Services (pdf) from the Medicare web site
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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases (NIDDK) Publications in English and Spanish - July 2014

  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines (Brochure) (EnglishSpanish)
  • Is My Child At Risk for Kidney Disease? (EnglishSpanish)
  • What I need to know about Kidney Failure and How It's Treated (EnglishSpanish)
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) web site
Northwest Renal Network's Choosing a Treatment Type - 2-page pdf from the NW Renal Network - December 2012
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Educational Materials from the PKD Foundation web site
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Renal Disorders in Pregnancy: Core Curriculum 2019 - Free, full-text, Article in Press from American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - August 16, 2018

10 Steps for Protecting Kidney Health from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
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UK's "Think Kidneys" Campaign - 2018

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Understanding Kidney Disease (Four free book chapters) - resource from ISN Education- January 2016

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Updated UK Guideline: Chronic Kidney Disease – Early Identification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care - July 2014

Uremic Toxins: What Are They? An Integrated Overview of Pathobiology and Classification from the Journal of Renal Nutrition

Video on Failing Kidneys and Different Treatment Options - Posting from the Precious Bodily Fluids blog. - April 2015

What Is Your Kidney Score? from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
What You Can Do from the Life Options web site
When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease from the Nemours Foundation web site
 
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  ESSENTIALS AND CLASSICS

Chronic Kidney Disease: What Every Nurse Should Know - from the American Nephrology Nurses Association web site
  • Introduction to Chronic Kidney Disease: An Overview of Causes, Stages, and Treatment
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 1 through 3
  • Chronic Kidney Disease - Stages 4 and 5: Overview of Therapy Options
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Transplantation
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Self-Care Dialysis
  • Kidney Replacement Therapy - Assisted Dialysis
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in the Pediatric Population
Core Curriculum: Chronic Kidney Disease - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 2007
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Updated Guideline: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care - Full-text from the National Guideline Clearinghouse. - December 2014

Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance (pdf) - article from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - September 10, 2004
Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease - recommendations from the American College of Physicians (October 2013)
Risk Factors for CKD from the Life Options web site
10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease from the Life Options web site
Frequently Asked Questions about CKD from the Life Options web site
Learn the Six Warning Signs of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disease from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) web site
 
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  BEST CLINICAL PRACTICES

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF)
Guidelines for Managing Kidney Disease from the Canadian Medical Association
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Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines from Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - April 2016

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD5) - Free, full-text review article from Pediatric Nephrology. - September 2013

Testing for Chronic Kidney Disease: A Position Statement From the National Kidney Foundation - full-text article from the American Journal of Kidney Diseases - August 2007

Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Care of Infants with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease - Free, full-text, Online First article from Pediatric Nephrology. - October 2012

Healthy People 2020 - National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines for managing Chronic Kidney Disease
Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral - from the Canadian Medical Association - 1999
 
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  K/DOQI™ -  Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative

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K/ DOQI Main Page on the National Kidney Foundation web site

 


  KDIGO™ -  Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes ( pronounced "kay de go" )

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) web site

  PUBMED SEARCHES (National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE Database)

Kidney Diseases (General) from MEDLINEplus Health Information
chronic kidney disease Continually Updated!
chronic kidney disease AND risk factors Continually Updated!
MEDLINE / Pubmed Information from the National Library of Medicine
 

  PRODUCTS

 
 

  STATISTICS

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Eleven New Indicators of CKD Have Been Added to the Resources on the CDC's CKD Surveillance System Website - April 2018

View all indicators.

The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Surveillance System - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

Fast Facts on Kidney Disease - Statistics from the National Kidney Foundation

Average Annual Health Care Use and Expenditures for Kidney Disease among Adults 18 and Older, U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population, 2003-2007 - Statistical brief (7-page pdf) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Renal Data Extraction and Referencing (RenDER) System - new online data querying application accessible through the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) - USRDS Presentations & Posters, 2016 Researcher's Guide and the 2018 USRDS annual report - from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) web site

2014 National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet - 3-page pdf. - from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

US Government Goals: Chronic Kidney Disease Chapter from the Healthy People 2020 Objectives
statehealthfacts.org - your source for state health data
 
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  UPCOMING EVENTS

NKF Health Screening Schedule - The National Kidney Foundation's (NKF) Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is designed to identify those at risk for kidney disease - scroll down to view multiple screening dates and contact phone numbers.
The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) Programs & Events
 
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  RELATED TOPICS

Dialysis Outcomes and Topics from the RenalWEB web site Continually Updated!
 
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  INPUT / SUGGESTIONS

E-mail to RenalWEB on the Chronic Kidney Disease Page
 
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